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Jerusalem's Walls During the Second Temple Period According to the Model at the Israel Museum
The Walls of Jerusalem
Jerusalem was also surrounded by massive walls. Ps 51:18 "Do good in Your good pleasure to Zion; Build the walls of Jerusalem." David’s prayer was answered when his son Solomon build the wall of Jerusalem around the city, and repaired the breaches of the city of David. He also built the Millo (rampart), a fortification which apparently existed when it was inhabited by the Jebusites as with King Hezekiah: 2 Chron 32:4-5 "And he strengthened himself, built up all the wall that was broken, raised it up to the towers, and built another wall outside; also he repaired the Millo in the City of David, and made weapons and shields in abundance." King Manasseh, after he repented built a wall around the city of David, on the west side of Gihon: 2 Chron 33:13-15 "Then Manasseh knew that the LORD was God.
After this he built a wall outside the City of David on the west side of Gihon, in the valley, as far as the entrance of the Fish Gate; and it enclosed Ophel, and he raised it to a very great height. Then he put military captains in all the fortified cities of Judah. Also Nehemiah, after the Babylonian captivity, brought helpers including "Shallum and his daughters," and repaired the broken down walls of Jerusalem by "putting their necks to the work of the Lord."
The Time of Jesus - 3 Walls
By the time of Jesus, according to Josephus, there were three walls that surrounded Jerusalem, "90 towers stood in the first wall, 14 in the second, and 60 in the third." The third wall was built by Herod Agrippa I. Click around the map on the first page to learn more about the walls, the towers, and fortifications.
The First Wall
The first wall was referred to as the "old wall" in the writings of Josephus and it encompassed the areas of the Lower and Upper Cities. It was originally built by one of the Hasmonean kings around 130 BC. See The First Wall
The Second Wall
The second wall is fairly uncertain due to lack of evidence, some say it began at the Citadel and and ran by the Damascus Gate and formed a loop ending at the Antonia Fortress. See The Second Wall
The Third Wall
The third wall began during the reign of Herod Agrippa I and evidence suggests that it was built around the new city from the Citadel around the northern Beth Zetha quarter forming a loop until it reached the Temple Mount. See The Third Wall
Also See: Herod's Temple