Bring forth with thee every living thing that [is] with thee,
of all flesh, [both] of fowl, and of cattle, and of every
creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may
breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply
upon the earth.
Ye shall therefore put difference between clean beasts and
unclean, and between unclean fowls and clean: and ye shall not
make your souls abominable by beast, or by fowl, or by any
manner of living thing that creepeth on the ground, which I
have separated from you as unclean.
And with every living creature that [is] with you, of the
fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you;
from all that go out of the ark, to every beast of the earth.
foul (`oph; peteinon): The word is now generally restricted
to the larger, especially the edible birds, but formerly it
denoted all flying creatures; in Lev 11:20 the King James
Version we have even, "all fowls that creep, going upon all
four," 11:21, "every flying creeping thing that goeth upon
1. Old Testament Terms and References:
The word most frequently translated "fowl" is `oph from
`uph, "to cover," hence, wing; it is used collectively for
birds and fowl in general (Gen 1:20, etc.; 2:19,20, etc.);
`ayit (from `ut, "to rush") means a ravenous beasts; or bird
of prey, used collectively of ravenous birds (Gen 15:11 the
King James Version; Isa 18:6 the King James Version "fowls";
Job 28:7, "a path which no fowl knoweth," the Revised
Version (British and American) "no bird of prey"); in Isa
46:11 it is used as a symbol of a conqueror (compare Jer
12:9, "bird," "birds of prey"; Ezek 39:4, "ravenous birds");
tsippor, Aramaic tsippar (from tsaphar, "to twitter or
chirp"), "a chirper," denotes a small bird or sparrow (Dt
4:17 the King James Version; Neh 5:18; Dan 4:14); to give
the carcasses of men to the fowls (birds) of the air was an
image of destruction (Dt 28:26 the King James Version; 1 Sam
17:44,46; Ps 79:2; Jer 7:33, etc.); barburim, rendered (1 Ki
4:23) "fatted fowl" (among the provisions for Solomon's
table for one day), is probably a mimetic word, like Greek
barbaros, Latin murmuro, English babble, perhaps denoting
geese from their cackle (Gesenius, from barar, "to cleanse,"
referring to their white plumage; but other derivations and
renderings are given). They might have been ducks or swans.
They could have been guineas or pigeons. The young of the
ostrich was delicious food, and no doubt when Solomon's
ships brought peafowl they also brought word that they were
a delicacy for a king's table. The domestic fowl was not
common so early in Israel,but it may have been brought by
Solomon with other imports from the East; in New Testament
times chickens were common; ba`al kanaph, "owner of a wing,"
is used for a bird of any kind in Prov 1:17. "In vain is the
net spread in the sight of any bird," the King James Version
margin Hebrew, "in the eyes of everything that hath a
Several distinct Hebrew and Greek words are thus rendered in
the English Bible. Of these the most common is 'oph, which is
usually a collective term for all kinds of birds. In 1Ki 4:23
among the daily provisions for Solomon's table "fatted fowl"
are included. In the New Testament the word translated "fowls"
is most frequently that which comprehends all kinds of birds
(including ravens, Lu 12:24 [SPARROW]
Fowl. - This word which, in its most general sense, applies to anything that flies in the air (Genesis 1:20, 21), and which frequently occurs in the Bible with this meaning, is also sometimes used in a narrower sense, as, for instance, III K., iv, 23, where it stands for all fatted birds that may be reckoned among the delicacies of a king's table; so likewise Gen., xv, 11 and Is., xviii, 6, where it means birds of prey in general. In this latter signification allusions are made to their habit of perching on bare or dead trees, or of flocking together in great numbers.