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"But as for the children of Israel which dwelt in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned over them. Then king Rehoboam sent Adoram, who [was] over the tribute; and all Israel stoned him with stones, that he died. Therefore king Rehoboam made speed to get him up to his chariot, to flee to Jerusalem. So Israel rebelled against the house of David unto this day. And it came to pass, when all Israel heard that Jeroboam was come again, that they sent and called him unto the congregation, and made him king over all Israel"
- 1 Kings 12:17-20
The Old Testament - A Brief Overview
Divided Kingdom - Israel and Judah
After Solomon the fame and fortunes of Israel went downhill. The nation rebelled against God and his laws. God might have destroyed Israel had He not promised to Abraham a redeemer and He still planned to use the house of David for this.
When Solomon died a civil war broke out as Solomon's sons and generals fought for the throne. Rehoboam had his fathers blessing to be the new king, but Jeroboam had more military influence. In the end, Rehoboam took the southern half of the country and called it "Judah". Jeroboam took the northern half and kept the name Israel. Each claimed to be God's chosen king.