1. Son of Ahitub, Ichabod's brother, son of Phinehas, Eli's son, the Lord's priest in Shiloh, wearing an ephod (1 Samuel 14:3; 1 Samuel 14:18). The ark of God was in his charge, and with it and the ephod he used to consult Jehovah. In Saul's later years, probably after the slaughter of the priests at Nob the ark was neglected as a means of consulting Jehovah. It lay in the house of Abinadab in Gibeah of Benjamin (2 Samuel 6:3), probably the Benjamite quarter of Kirjath-jearim, or Baale, on the borders of Judah and Benjamin (Joshua 18:14; Joshua 18:28). Saul's irreverent haste of spirit appears in his breaking off in the midst of consulting God through Ahijah with the ark and ephod, because he was impatient to encounter the Philistines whose approach he discerned by the tumult. Contrast David's implicit submission to Jehovah's guidance in encountering the same Philistines (2 Samuel 5:19-25, compare Isaiah 28:16 end).
His rash adjuration binding the people not to eat all day, until he was avenged on the Philistines, involved the people in the sin of ravenously eating the cattle taken, with the blood, and Jonathan in that of unwittingly sinning by tasting honey, and so incurring the penalty of death. Saul ought to have had the conscientiousness which would have led him never to take such an oath, rather than the scrupulosity which condemned the people and Jonathan instead of himself. His projected night pursuit was consequently prevented; for the priest met his proposal, which was well received by the people, by suggesting that Jehovah should be consulted. No answer having been given, owing to Jonathan's sin of ignorance for which Saul was to blame, Saul's wish was defeated. As Ahijah is evidently equates to Ahimelech the son of Ahitub (unless he was his brother), this will account for a coldness springing up on Saul's part toward Ahijah and his family, which culminated in the cruel slaughter of them at Nob on the ground of treasonous concert with David (1 Samuel 21).
2. 1 Chronicles 8:7.
3. 1 Chronicles 2:25.
4. 1 Chronicles 11:36.
5. 1 Chronicles 26:20.
6. A prophet of Shiloh. He met outside of Jerusalem in the way, and foretold to, Jeroboam, the transfer of ten tribes to him from Solomon, for Solomon's idolatries, by the symbolic action of rending the garment on him into twelve pieces, of which he gave ten to Jeroboam. Further he assured him from God of "a sure house, such as He had built for David," if only Jeroboam would "walk in God's ways," as David did. Jeroboam fled from Solomon to Shishak, king of Egypt, where he stayed until Solomon died. The other prophecy of his (1 Kings 14:6-16) was given to Jeroboam's wife, who in disguise consulted him as to her son Abijah's recovery.
Though blind with age he detected her, and announced that as Jeroboam had utterly failed in the one condition of continuance in the kingdom rent from David's house, which his former prophecy had laid down, namely, to keep God's commandments heartily as David did, Jeroboam's house should be taken away "as dung"; but that in reward for the good there was found in Abijah toward God, he alone should have an honorable burial (compare Isaiah 57:1-2), but that "Jehovah would smite Israel as a reed shaken in the water, and root up and scatter Israel beyond the river," Euphrates. Reference to his prophecy as one of the records of Solomon's reign is made in 2 Chronicles 9:29. Probably it was he through whom the Lord encouraged Solomon in building the temple (1 Kings 6:11).