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What was Apocryphal Literature in Judaism?
A SECOND LIST OF WORKS. A second list of works which have never been included in the Scriptures, whether Jewish or Christian, is given below. These consist of writings which were either never of canonical status, or which were considered as representative of individual or group viewpoints.
The Book of Jubilees - 200 - 150 B.C.
The Psalms of Solomon - 100 - 50 B.C.
The Assumption of Moses - 1 - 50 A.D.
Adam and Eve
In this list several of the books can be dated approximately, whereas others cannot. The Book of Enoch, for example, is apparently composed of sections written at different times, all of which were finally combined not long before the Christian era. Some of its phraseology is paralleled in the New Testament, especially the well-known passage in Jude 14, 15, which is an exact replica of Enoch 1:9:
Jude 14-15 Now Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied about these men also, saying, "Behold, the Lord comes with ten thousands of His saints, to execute judgment on all, to convict all who are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have committed in an ungodly way, and of all the harsh things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him."
The Book of Enoch, the Assumption of Moses, II Baruch, II Esdras, and parts of the Sibylline Oracles belong to the class of apocalyptic literature. Apocalyptic literature is predictive, generally using symbolism which seems bizarre and often inconsistent with itself. Uniformly it prophesies terrible physical judgments on the wicked, from which the righteous shall be delivered by the supernatural intervention of God. Angels are frequently actors in the drama of apocalypse. Many apocalyptic works are pseudonymous, or are ascribed falsely to eminent men who never could have written them. For example, the Book of Enoch was not written by Enoch, but it was attributed to him because he had a reputation for piety and for wisdom.
In style and in imagery the Old Testament books of Ezekiel and Daniel have been classed as apocalyptic, although they could not rightly be called pseudonymous. Revelation, in the New Testament, is also of the same literary type.
Apocalyptic literature was usually produced in a period of persecution, when men's hopes turned to future deliverance. It was intended to encourage the believers to persist in their allegiance to God, and its imagery discouraged outsiders from attempting to grasp its meaning. The fact that certain books in the canonical Scriptures are apocalyptic does not disqualify them as inspired writings, since the Bible is an inspired Book.