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Is this the same Rameses mentioned in the Bible?
This painting depicts Ramesses II who was the third Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth dynasty reigning from about 1279 BC – 1213 BC). The painting is from the colossal statue of Ramesses II "The Great"weighing over seven tons. The statue now resides at the British Museum in London. "Rameses" is also a city mentioned in the Bible.
This colossal statue of Ramesses II weighs over 7 tons and is one of the largest pieces in the British Museum. Some believe Rameses II was the greatest of all of Egypt's Pharaoh's. The Ramesses II Bust discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. Ra'amses name is mentioned in the Bible. Some believe Rameses II was the Pharaoh of the Exodus.
Genesis 47:11 - And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded.
Exodus 1:11 - Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Rameses.
From the Ramesseum, Thebes, Egypt
19th Dynasty, about 1250 BC
Height: 266.8 cm
Width: 203.3 cm (across shoulders)
Weight: 7.5 tons
Henry Salt Collection
Item: EA 19
Room: # 4, Egyptian sculpture, north
Location: British Museum, London
British Museum Excerpt
Colossal bust of Ramesses II, the 'Younger Memnon'
One of the largest pieces of Egyptian sculpture in the British Museum
Ramesses II succeeded his father Sethos I in around 1279 BC and ruled for 67 years.
Weighing 7.25 tons, this fragment of his statue was cut from a single block of two-coloured granite. He is shown wearing the nemes head-dress surmounted by a cobra diadem. The sculptor has used a slight variation of normal conventions to relate his work to the viewer, angling the eyes down slightly, so that the statue relates more to those looking at it. It was retrieved from the mortuary temple of Ramesses at Thebes (the 'Ramesseum') by Giovanni Belzoni in 1816. Belzoni wrote a fascinating account of his struggle to remove it, both literally, given its colossal size, and politically. The hole on the right of the torso is said to have been made by members of Napoleon's expedition to Egypt at the end of the eighteenth century, in an unsuccessful attempt to remove the statue. The imminent arrival of the head in England in 1818 inspired the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley to write Ozymandias:
... My name is Ozymandias, king of kings:
Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!
Nothing beside remains. Round the decay
Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare
The lone and level sands stretch far away.'
After its arrival in The British Museum the 'Younger Memnon' was perhaps the first piece of Egyptian sculpture to be recognized as a work of art by connoisseurs, who traditionally judged things by the standards of ancient Greek art.
Colossal Bust of Ramesses II in The British Museum, called the 'Younger Memnon'
"Exodus 1:11 - Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Raamses
Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II at Abu Simbel
Ramesses II (c. 1303 BC – July or August 1213 BC; Egyptian: *Riʻmīsisu, alternatively transcribed as Rameses /ˈræməsiːz/ and Ramses /ˈræmsiːz/ or /ˈræmziːz/), referred to as Ramesses the Great, was the third Egyptian pharaoh (reigned 1279 BC – 1213 BC) of the Nineteenth dynasty. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire. His successors and later Egyptians called him the "Great Ancestor". Ramesses II led several military expeditions into the Levant, re-asserting Egyptian control over Canaan. He also led expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein. At age fourteen, Ramesses was appointed Prince Regent by his father Seti I. He is believed to have taken the throne in his late teens and is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC for 66 years and 2 months, according to both Manetho and Egypt's contemporary historical records. He was once said to have lived to be 99 years old, but it is more likely that he died in his 90th or 91st year. If he became Pharaoh in 1279 BC as most Egyptologists today believe, he would have assumed the throne on May 31, 1279 BC, based on his known accession date of III Shemu day 27. Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented 14 sed festivals (the first held after thirty years of a pharaoh's reign, and then every three years) during his reign—more than any other pharaoh. On his death, he was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings; his body was later moved to a royal cache where it was discovered in 1881, and is now on display in the Cairo Museum. The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples and monuments. He established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and main base for his campaigns in Syria. This city was built on the remains of the city of Avaris, the capital of the Hyksos when they took over, and was the location of the main Temple of Set. He is also known as Ozymandias in the Greek sources, from a transliteration into Greek of a part of Ramesses's throne name, Usermaatre Setepenre, "Ra's mighty truth, chosen of Ra". (Wikipedia)
Ramesses II Building Projects
Ramesses built extensively throughout Egypt and Nubia, and his cartouches are prominently displayed even in buildings that he did not actually construct. There are accounts of his honor hewn on stone, statues, remains of palaces and temples, most notably the Ramesseum in the western Thebes and the rock temples of Abu Simbel. He covered the land from the Delta to Nubia with buildings in a way no king before him had done. He also founded a new capital city in the Delta during his reign called Pi-Ramesses; it had previously served as a summer palace during Seti I's reign.His memorial temple Ramesseum, was just the beginning of the pharaoh's obsession with building. When he built, he built on a scale unlike almost anything before. In the third year of his reign Ramesses started the most ambitious building project after the pyramids, that were built 1,500 years earlier. The population was put to work on changing the face of Egypt. In Thebes, the ancient temples were transformed, so that each one of them reflected honour to Ramesses as a symbol of this divine nature and power. Ramesses decided to eternalize himself in stone, and so he ordered changes to the methods used by his masons. The elegant but shallow reliefs of previous pharaohs were easily transformed, and so their images and words could easily be obliterated by their successors. Ramesses insisted that his carvings be deeply engraved in the stone, which made them not only less susceptible to later alteration, but also made them more prominent in the Egyptian sun, reflecting his relationship with the sun god, Ra. Ramesses constructed many large monuments, including the archeological complex of Abu Simbel, and the Mortuary temple known as the Ramesseum. He built on a monumental scale to ensure that his legacy would survive the ravages of time. Ramesses used art as a means of propaganda for his victories over foreigners and are depicted on numerous temple reliefs. Ramesses II also erected more colossal statues of himself than any other pharaoh. He also usurped many existing statues by inscribing his own cartouche on them. (Wikipedia)
The City Rameses
It must be accidental that the expression 'land of Rameses' has not yet been read on the Egyptian monuments, although we find allusions to the merits of Rameses II. as a coloniser (which characteristically are wanting with other kings). A city, or rather cities, bearing the name of this king are, however, mentioned repeatedly. In the twenty-first year (see above) of his reign, Rameses received ambassadors of the Hittite king bringing the treaty of peace and alliance 'in the city : house of Ra'-mes-su, Mey (or old Mer)-amun, doing the commands of his father Amon, of Harmachis and Atum, the lord of Heliopolis, the Amon of Ra'-mes-su Mey-amun, the Ptah of Ra'-mes-su Mey-amun, and Set'. This list gives to us the names of the official gods of the new city, confirming its position in eastern Goshen, where Atum of Heliopolis was the chief god. LD 3:194 says : 'thou hast made for thyself a splendid residence to fortify the frontier of the country, The House of Ra'messu Meyamun ; . . . a royal palace is in it'. Pap. Anastasi 21:46 gives a poetical description of a residence, 'the castle: "Great of Victory (or Strength) " is its name, between Phoenicia (!) and Egypt'. The local gods are Amon, associated with Set, then Astarte and Buto. These gods and the name do not agree with our house of Rameses mentioned above ; indeed, the city great of victori(es) (mentioned also in the great text of Abydus, in Pap. Leyden, 1348, and in the expedition of Sety I. against the Bedouins (?) does not seem to be identical (as is usually supposed), but must be a later foundation of Rameses, N. of Goshen. Anast. 3:1:12-13 'the house of Ra'messu Meyamun' appears as identical with the place 'Great of victori(es)' (82 etc. ). Its description seems to point to the country W. of Tanis, not very far from the sea. Thus a monument which has led Brugsch considerably astray becomes intelligible. In Tanis was found a statue of a priest who had among other titles that of 'a prophet of Amon of Rameses of (the city?) House of Rameses (and?) Amon (of the one) great of strength'.1 - Brugsch (Dict. Geogr. 418, etc.) concluded from it that Rameses and Tanis-Zoan were one and the same city, sought consequently for Goshen far in the N. , and came thus to his strange Exodus-theory, considering the Sirbonian bog as the 'sea' through which the Israelites passed. The statue furnishes rather the confirmation that we have two different Rameses-cities. Consequently, we have to be very careful in distinguish ing them ; LD 3:194 refers possibly to the later foundation, 3 as it dates from the year 34 of Rameses. (Encyclopedia Biblica)
The Biblical City of Rameses
The biblical Rameses can, of course, be only a city in or near Goshen. That mentioned in the treaty with the Hittites seems to be identical, if we may judge by the local gods alluded to. Compare the granite group found at Tel(l) el- Maskhuta which represented Rameses II. between Atum and Harmachis, the principal gods of that district. From this group Lepsius concluded that Tel(l) el- Maskhuta was the biblical Rameses (see PITHOM), but on insufficient grounds. The excavations of Naville have shown that the names Pithom and Succoth are to be associated with that locality, but not Rameses. The latter city remains to be determined. In accordance with Ex.12:37, Nu. 33:35 it should be sought for in the western part of Goshen, E. of Pithom-Etham. There are not many points bearing traces of ancient cities in that region ; Lepsius described the place (Tell) Abu- Soleiman (or Isleman), as showing extensive ruins, and thought of Pithom. Naville (Pithom, (3) 36) disputes the existence of town-ruins at that spot. He marks Shugafieh (in which he believes he finds the Roman garrison place Thohu or Thou) and Tell Rotab as the only ruins, W. of Pithom-Tel(l) el-Maskhuta. Both localities exhibit extensive ruins of the Roman age, and seem to have been Roman military stations ; it is not improbable that they were settled before that period. If so, we may expect the settlements to go back to the time of Rameses' colonisation ; but nothing certain can be said until a thorough exploration of those ruins has been made. (Encyclopedia Biblica)
RAAMSES (Exod. i. 11), the name of a district and town in Lower Egypt, is notable as affording the mainstay of the current theory that King Rameses II. was the pharaoh of the oppression and his successor Minephthas the pharaoh of the exodus. The actual facts, however, hardly justify so large an inference. The first three passages cited above are all by the priestly (post-exile) author and go together. Jacob is settled by his son Joseph in the land of Rameses and from the same Rameses the exodus naturally takes place. The older narrative speaks not of the land of Rameses but of the land of Goshen; it seems probable, therefore, that the later author interprets an obsolete term by one current in his own day, just as the Septuagint in Gen. xlvi. 28 names instead of Goshen Heroopolis and the land of Rameses. Heroopolis lay on the canal connecting the Nile and the Red Sea, and not far from the head of the latter, so that the land of Rameses must be sought in Wadi Tumilat near the line of the modern fresh-water canal. In Exod. i. ii, again, the storecities or arsenals which the Hebrews built for Pharaoh are specified as Pithom and Raamses, to which the Septuagint adds Heliopolis. Pithom also takes us to the Wadi Tumilat. But did the Israelites maintain a continuous recollection of the names of the cities on which they were forced to build, or were these names rather added by a writer who knew what fortified places were in his own time to be seen in Wadi Tumilat ? The latter is far the more likely case, when we consider that the old form of the story of the Hebrews in Egypt is throughout deficient in precise geographical data, as might be expected in a history not committed to writing till the Israelites had resided for centuries in another and distant land. The post-exile or priestly author indeed gives a detailed route for the exodus (which is lacking in the older story), but he, we know, was a student of geography and might supplement tradition by what he could gather from traders as to the caravan routes.' And at all events to argue that, because the Hebrews worked at a city named after Rameses, they did so in the reign of the founder, is false reasoning, for the Hebrew expression might equally be used of repairs or new works of any kind. It appears, however, from remains and inscriptions that Rameses II. did build in Wadi Tumilat, especially at Tell Maskhuta, which Lepsius therefore identified with the Raamses of Exodus. This identification is commemorated in the name of the adjacent railway station. But Naville's excavations found that the ruins were those of Pithom and that Pithom was identical with the later Heroopolis. Petrie found sculptures of the age of Rameses II. at Tel Rotab, in the Wadi Tumilat west of Pithom, and concludes that this was Rameses. The Biblical city is probably one of those named Prameses, "House of Ramesses," in the Egyptian texts. [Encyclopedia Britannica 1911]
Rameses in Easton's Bible Dictionary "the land of" (Gen. 47:11), was probably "the land of Goshen" (q.v.) 45:10. After the Hebrews had built Rameses, one of the "treasure cities," it came to be known as the "land" in which that city was built. The city bearing this name (Ex. 12:37) was probably identical with Zoan, which Rameses II. ("son of the sun") rebuilt. It became his special residence, and ranked next in importance and magnificance to Thebes. Huge masses of bricks, made of Nile mud, sun-dried, some of them mixed with stubble, possibly moulded by Jewish hands, still mark the site of Rameses. This was the general rendezvous of the Israelites before they began their march out of Egypt. Called also Raamses (Ex. 1:11).
Rameses in Fausset's Bible Dictionary There is mentioned in Egyptian monuments RHMSS, son of Aahmes I (Lepsius); the new Pharaoh "that knew not Joseph." The Pharaohs of the 19th dynasty of Rama (Rameses II was the great conqueror) two centuries later have a final -u, Ramessu. In Genesis 47:11 Rama is the name of a district. In Exodus 1:11 Raamses is the city which already existed, but which the Israelites now strengthened as a treasure city. Rameses II fortified and enlarged it long after. Septuagint make Rama the Heroopolis of later times. It and Pithom were on the canal dug under Osirtasin of the 12th dynasty. Derived from Ra-mes, "child of Ra" the sun god. The Egyptians called themselves "children of Ra" front the earliest times, even "Mizraim" may be from Mis-ra. The name Rama would fitly apply to Goshen which was especially associated with sun worship. Aahmes I built cities in the Delta, especially on the eastern quarter from whence the invading shepherds had come, and was likely as restorer of the sun (Ra) worship to have given the name Rama to the treasure city which Israel fortified there, as he gave it also to his son. Besides Pi ("city") should appear before Rama if it were the Egyptian designation from the name of king Rameses. When Rameses II enlarged it its name was Rama Meiamon, not Rama simply. Moreover, when enlarged by him it was the center of a large Egyptian festive population, whereas in Exodus 1:11 it is in the midst of oppressed Israelites. Lepsius makes Aboo Kesheyd to be on the site.
Rameses in Naves Topical Bible (Called also Raamses.) -The district in Egypt which was inhabited by the Israelites Ge 47:11; Ex 1:11; 12:37; Nu 33:3,5 City of, built by the Israelites as a treasure city for one of the Pharaohs Ex 1:11
Rameses in Smiths Bible Dictionary (child of the sun), a city and district of lower Egypt. Ge 47:11; Ex 12:37; Nu 33:3,5 This land of Rameses either corresponds to the land of Goshen or was a district of it, more probably the former. The city was one of the two store- cities built for the Pharaoh who first oppressed the children of Israel. Ex 1:11 (It was probably the capital of Goshen and situated in the valley of the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile. McClintock and Strong say that its location is indicated by the present Tell Ramsis, a quadrangular mound near Belbeis. Dr. Brugsch thinks that it was at Zoan-Tanis, the modern San, on the Tanitic branch of the Nile, and that it was built or enlarged by Rameses II and made his capital. --ED.)
Rameses in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE ra-am'-sez, ram'-e-sez (Ex 1:11), (Gen 47:11; Ex 12:37; Nu 33:3,5) (ra`mecec, ra`amcec; Rhamesse; Egyptian Ra-messu, "Ra created him" (or "it")): 1. The Meaning of "Store-Cities": One of the two "settlements" (mickenoth) built, or "built up," by the Hebrews for the Pharaoh, the other being Pithom, to which the Septuagint adds a third, namely, "On which is Heliopolis," a town near Cairo (Ex 1:11). The Hebrew term mickenoth comes from a root meaning "to settle down" (Arabic sakan, "settlement," Assyrian sakanu or shakanu, "to set"), but it is rendered "strong cities" in Septuagint, "treasure cities" in the King James Version, and (incorrectly) "store- cities" in the Revised Version: The "land of Rameses," where Jacob and his sons settled, was apparently the "field of Zoan" (see ZOAN), thus lying in the Delta East of the Bubastic branch of the Nile. 2. The Meaning of the Name: It is often assumed that no city called Rameses would have existed before the time of Rameses II, or the 14th century BC, though even before Rameses I the name occurs as that of a brother of Horemhib under the XVIIIth Dynasty. The usual translation "Child of Ra" is grammatically incorrect in Egyptian and as Ra was an ancient name for the "sun" it seems possible that a town may have borne the title "Ra created it" very early. The mention of Rameses in Gen (47:11) is often regarded as an anachronism, since no scholar has supposed that Jacob lived as late as the time of Rameses II. This would equally apply to the other notices, and at most would serve to mark the age of the passages in the Pentateuch where Rameses is mentioned, but even this cannot be thought to be proved (see EXODUS). According to De Rouge (see Pierret, Vocab. Hieroglyph., 1875, 143) there were at least three towns in Lower Egypt that bore the name Pa Rames-ses ("city of Rameses"); but Brugsch supposes that the place mentioned in the Old Testament was Zoan, to which Rameses II gave this name when making it his capital in the Delta. Dr. Budge takes the same view, while Dr. Naville and others suppose that the site of Raamses has still to be found. 3. Situation: There appears to have been no certain tradition preserving the site, for though Silvia (about 385 AD) was told that it lay 4 miles from the town of Arabia (see GOSHEN), she found no traces of such a place. Brugsch ("A New City of Rameses, 1876," Aegyptische Zeitschrift, 69) places one such city in the southern part of Memphis itself. Goodwin (Rec. of Past, Old Series, VI, 11) gives an Egyptian letter describing the "city of Rameses-Miamun," which appears to be Zoan, since it was on the seacoast. It was a very prosperous city when this letter was written, and a pa-khennu or "palace city." It had canals full of fish, lakes swarming with birds, fields of lentils, melons, wheat, onions and sesame, gardens of vines, almonds and figs. Ships entered its harbor; the lotus and papyrus grew in its waters. The inhabitants greeted Rameses II with garlands of flowers. Besides wine and mead, of the "conqueror's city," beer was brought to the harbor from the Kati (in Cilicia), and oil from the "Lake Sagabi." There is no reason to suppose that Zoan was less prosperous in the early Hyksos age, when the Hebrews dwelt in its plain, whatever be the conclusion as to the date when the city Rameses received that name. The description above given agrees with the Old Testament account of the possession given by Joseph to his family "in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses" (Gen 47:11).
Rameses was the name of eleven Egyptian pharaohs. Ramses II (died circa 1225 bc), reigned circa 1292-circa 1225 bc; known as Ramses the Great. The third pharaoh of the 19th dynasty, he built vast monuments and statues, including the two rock temples at Abu Simbel. [Oxford Dictionary]
Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses *Riʕmīsisu) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth dynasty. He is often regarded as Egypt's greatest and most powerful pharaoh, building more monuments, fathering more children, reigning longer than any other ruler of Egypt, and winning the most celebrated victory in Egyptian history, the Battle of Kadesh against the Hittites. After the battle, he negotiated a peace treaty, "a copy of which is now on the wall of the General Assembly building of the United Nations." He was born ca. 1302 B.C.E. At age fourteen, Ramesses was appointed Prince Regent by his father, Seti I. He is believed to have taken the throne in his early 20s and to have ruled Egypt from 1279 B.C.E. to 1213 B.C.E. for a total of 66 years and 2 months. He was once said to have lived to be 99 years old, but it is more likely that he died in his 90th or 92nd year. Ancient Greek writers such as Herodotus attributed his accomplishments to the semi-mythical Sesostris, and he is traditionally believed to have been the Pharaoh of the Exodus due to a tradition started by Eusebius of Caesarea. If he became king in 1279 B.C.E. as most Egyptologists today believe, he would have assumed the throne on May 31, 1279 B.C.E. based on his known accession date of III Shemu day 27. He also transported the Egyptian capital from Thebes to Ra'amses in the Delta. Towards the end of his life, he became obsessed with his claim to be divine and with ensuring that his reputation would survive his death. His victories had increased Egypt's wealth but his building projects over stretched the treasury. Whether or not he is the Pharaoh of Exodus, as one commentator writes, "[I]t is safe to say that the character of Ramesses fits the picture of the overweening ruler who refuses divine demands." (New World Encyclopedia)
Rameses 'Birth name' used in the royal titulary of eleven rulers in the 19th and 20th Dvnasties, This phase of the New Kingdom is therefore often described as the 'Ramesside' period...Rameses a Usermaatra Selepenra (1279-1213 BC) was the third ruler of the 19th Dynasty. A vast number of temples, monuments and statuary were created (or usurped from earlier rulers) during his extremely long reign, including the construction of several Nubian rock-cut temples at ABU SIMBEL, AMARA West, BEIT EL-WALI, Derr and Gerf Husein. He was also an active builder in Egypt itself, where his projects included numerous temples at Memphis, the court and pylon of LUXOR temple, the ramesseum at western Thebes (his mortuary temple), another temple at Abydos, the completion of his father's temple nearby, and the decoration of the great HYPOSTYLE HALL at Karnak (as well as other additions to the complex). The major event of his reign, celebrated repeatedly on the walls of his major temples, was the confrontation with the Hittites known as the BATTLE OF QADESH, which - if not the great victory he would clearly have liked - ensured that the Hittite empire was kept at bay and Egyptian interests in the Levant were more or less protected. Eventually he signed a treaty with the Hittites, and the archive of CUNEIFORM tablets at Boghazkoy contains a large number of LETTERS sent by Rameses to the Hittite king and his wife. Surviving stelae also record Rameses' further consolidation of relations with Hatti through his marriages to two Hittite princesses in the thirty-third and forty-fourth years of his reign (see queens). His principal wife was NEFERTARI, to whom the smaller temple at Abu Simbel was dedicated, and when she died his daughter Meritamun was elevated to this position. In the eastern Delta, where his family origins lay, he established a new capital called Piramesse (see qantir and tell el-dab'a) at a site near modern el-Khatana where Sety I had previously built a palace. This was to be the capital city for the rest of the Ramesside period, although the royal cemetery was still in the valley of the kings at Thebes. Rameses' own tomb was Kv7 but his mummy was one of those found in the DEER EL-BAHRI mummy cache. During the first part of Rameses' lifetime the heir to the throne had been Amunherkhepeshef, one of his sons by Nefertari, but it was Khaemwaset, the son of another wife called Isetnofret, who was heir for most of the latter half of his reign. Despite a vigorous career as chief priest of Ptah at Memphis, Khaemwaset died in the fifty-fifth year of Rameses' reign, about a decade earlier than his father, and when Rameses finally died it was his thirteenth son, MERENPTAH, who succeeded him on the throne. Even Merenptah seems to have been middle-aged by the time that he came to power; he was the first of several short-lived rulers who had perhaps already passed their peak as a result of Rameses' unusually long reign. [British Museum Text]
Mummy of Ramesses II "the Great"
Colossal Bust of Ramesses II in the British Museum
Timeline of Ancient Egypt
Greek Dynasty- (332 - 30 B.C.)
Persian Period II - (342 - 332 B.C.)
Late Period II - (425 - 342 B.C.)
Persian Period I - (517 - 425 B.C.)
Late Period I - (1069 - 517 B.C.)
New Kingdom -(1550 - 1069 B.C.E.)
Intermediate Period II - (1650 - 1550 B.C.)
Middle Kingdom - (2125 - 1650 B.C.)
Intermediate Period I -(2181 - 2125 B.C.)
Old Kingdom - (3100 - 2181 B.C.)
Archaic Period - (3414 - 3100 B.C.)
Predynastic Period - (5464 - 3414 B.C.)
List of Egyptian Kings
EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD
1st Dynasty (3050 - 2890)
Little actual history is known of the pharaohs of the early dynasties. Their monuments, however, are some of the most studied artifacts in the world.
2nd Dynasty (3890-2686)
The age of the Pyramid. The pyramids of Giza and Dahshur are built during this period.
Sanakhte (Nebka) 2650 - 2630
Netjerykhet (Djoser) 2630 - 2611
Sekhemkhet (Djoser Teti) 2611 - 2603
Khaba 2603 - 2599
Huni 2599 - 2575
Snefru 2575 - 2551
Khufu (Cheops) 2551 - 2528
Djedefre 2528 - 2520
Khafre (Chephren) 2520 - 2494
Menkaure (Mycerinus) 2490 - 2472
Shepseskaf 2472 - 2467
Userkaf 2465 - 2458
Sahure 2458 - 2446
Neferirkare Kakai 2477-2467
Shepseskare Ini 2426 - 2419
Neferefre 2419 - 2416
Niuserre Izi 2453 - 2422
Menkauhor 2422 - 2414
Djedkare Izezi 2388 - 2356
Teti 2345 - 2333
Pepy I (Meryre) 2332 - 2283
Merenre Nemtyemzaf 2283 2278
Pepy II (Neferkare) 2278 - 2184
FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
This was a very troubled time. There was a breakdown of centralized government, with many kings having overlapping reigns. Montuhotep established order from his capital at Thebes.
7th and 8th Dynasties (2150 - 2135)
Attested Kings about whom nothing more is known
9th and 10th Dynasties (2135 - 1986)
several kings named Kheti
Merikare 11th Dynasty
Inyotef I (Sehertawy) 2134 - 2117
Inyotef II (Wahankh) 2117-2069
Inyotef III (Nakhtnebtepnefer) 2069 - 2060
This period is marked with foreign trade and enormous building projects. There is a refinement in the making of jewelry. Prosperity and renaissance existed for a long period of time, but eventually, internal problems become apparent.
Mentuhotep II 2055 -2004
Mentuhotep III (Sankhkare) 2004 - 1992
Mentuhotep IV (Nebtawyre) 1992 - 1987
Amenemhet I (Sehetepibre) 1991 - 1962
Senusret I (Kheperkare) 1956 - 1911
Amenemhet II (Nubkaure) 1911 - 1877
Senusret II (Khakheperre) 1877 - 1870
Senusret III (Khakaure) 1836 - 1817
Amenemhet III (Nimaatre) 1817 - 1772
Amenemhet IV (Maakherure) 1772 - 1763
Neferusobek (Sobekkare) 1763 - 1759
SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
The Hyksos invade and conquer. Eventually the Theban princes regain power.
Kamose defeats the Hyksos.
Neferhotep I 1696 - 1686
Sihathor 1685 - 1685
Sobekhotep IV 1685 - 1678
Sobekhotep V 1678 - 1674
Iaib 1674 - 1664
Ay 1664 - 1641
Apophis (Auserre Apepi)
Tao I (Senakhtenre)
Tao II (Sekenenre)
Extreme prosperity and renaissance in art and building projects mark the beginning of this period. Towards the end of the 19th Dynasty the increasing power of the priesthood corrupts the central government. During the 20th Dynasty tomb robbing is done by officials. The priesthood becomes hereditary and begins to assume secular power. The government breaks down.
Ahmose (Nebpehtyre) 1539 - 1514
Amenhotep I (Djeserkare) 1514 - 1493
Thutmose I (Akheperkare) 1493 - 1481
Thutmose II (Akheperenre) 1491 - 1479
Hatshepsut (Maatkare) 1473 - 1458
Thutmose III (Menkheperre) 1504 - 1450
Amenhotep II (Akheperure) 1427 - 1392
Thutmose IV (Menkheperure) 1419 - 1386
Amenhotep III (Nebmaatre) 1382 - 1344
Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten 1350 - 1334
Smenkhkare (Ankhkheperure) 1336-1334
Tutankhamun (Nebkheperure) 1334 - 1325
Ay (Kheperkheperure) 1325 - 1321
Horemheb (Djeserkheperure) 1323 - 1295
Ramesses I (Menpehtyre) 1295 - 1294
Seti I (Menmaatre) 1394 - 1279
Ramesses II (Usermaatresetepenre) 1279 - 1213
Merenptah (Baenrehotephirmaat) 1213 - 1203
Amenmesse (Menmire) 1203 - 1200
Seti II (Userkheperuresetepenre) 1200 - 1194
Siptah (Akhenresetepenre) 1194 - 1188
Tausert (Sitremeritamun) 1185-1187
Setakht (Userkhauremeryamun) 1186 - 1184
Ramesses III (Usermaatremeryamun) 1184 - 1153
Ramesses IV (Hekamaatresetepenamun) 1153 - 1147
Ramesses V (Usermaatresekheperenre) 1147 - 1143
Ramesses VI (Nebmaatremeryamun) 1143 - 1136
Ramesses VII (Usermaatresetepenre) 1136 - 1129
Ramesses VIII (Usermaatreakhenamun) 1129 - 1126
Ramesses IX (Neferkaresetepenre) 1126 - 1108
Ramesses X (Khepermaatresetepenre) 1108 - 1099
Ramesses XI (Menmaatresetepenptah) 1099 - 1069
THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
The capital moves from Tanis to Libyan, to Nubia, to Thebes, to SAIS, and then back to Nubia and Thebes.
Southern Rulers at Thebes
Psusennes I 1040-992
Pinedjem I 1070-1032
Smendes II 992-990
Psusennes II 959-945
Pinedjem II 990-969
Psusennes III 969-945
Shoshenq I 945-924
Osorkon I 924-909
Shoshenq II ?--883
Osorkon II 883-855
Takelot II 860-835
Shoshenq III 835-783
Shoshenq IV 773-735
Osorkon IV 735-712
Pedubaste I 828-803
Osorkon IV 777-749
Shepsesre Tefnakht I 725-720
Wahkare Bakenranef 720-715
The Nubians fall under the Assyrians invasion. The Greeks help re-establish order. A renaissance in the arts of the 25th Dynasty shows a return to the Old Kingdom style.
Piye 747-716 BC
Psammetichus I (Psam-tik) 664-610
Nekau (Necho) II 610-595
Psammetichus II 595-589
Psammetichus III 526-525
Darius I 521-486
Xerxes I 486-466
Artaxerxes I 465-424
Darius II 424-404
Nepherites I 399-393
Nepherites II 380
The 30th Dynasty contains the last of the Egyptian-born Pharaohs. Nectanebo I 380-362
Nectanebo II 360-343
SECOND PERSIAN PERIOD (343-332 B.C.)
The 31st Dynasty is also known as the Second Persian Period and was added after Manetho created his list of kings..
Ochus (Artaxerxes III) 343-338
Darius III Codomannus 335-332
GRECO-ROMAN PERIOD (332 B.C. - 395 A.D.)
Macedonian Kings - Alexandria
Alexander the Great 332-323
Genesis 47:11 - And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded.
Numbers 33:3 - And they departed from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the morrow after the passover the children of Israel went out with an high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians.
Exodus 12:37 - And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot [that were] men, beside children.
Numbers 33:5 - And the children of Israel removed from Rameses, and pitched in Succoth.
Also the word "Raamses"
Exodus 1:11 - Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Raamses
Exodus 34:18 - The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time of the month Abib: for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt.
Genesis 46:7 - His sons, and his sons' sons with him, his daughters, and his sons' daughters, and all his seed brought he with him into Egypt.
Jeremiah 2:18 - And now what hast thou to do in the way of Egypt, to drink the waters of Sihor? or what hast thou to do in the way of Assyria, to drink the waters of the river?
Jeremiah 44:14 - So that none of the remnant of Judah, which are gone into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, shall escape or remain, that they should return into the land of Judah, to the which they have a desire to return to dwell there: for none shall return but such as shall escape.
Isaiah 19:22 - And the LORD shall smite Egypt: he shall smite and heal [it]: and they shall return [even] to the LORD, and he shall be intreated of them, and shall heal them.
2 Kings 17:4 - And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea: for he had sent messengers to So king of Egypt, and brought no present to the king of Assyria, as [he had done] year by year: therefore the king of Assyria shut him up, and bound him in prison.
Exodus 23:15 - Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty:)
Exodus 10:13 - And Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all [that] night; [and] when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts.
Exodus 9:25 - And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt all that [was] in the field, both man and beast; and the hail smote every herb of the field, and brake every tree of the field.
Jeremiah 44:30 - Thus saith the LORD; Behold, I will give Pharaohhophra king of Egypt into the hand of his enemies, and into the hand of them that seek his life; as I gave Zedekiah king of Judah into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, his enemy, and that sought his life.
Ezekiel 20:5 - And say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD; In the day when I chose Israel, and lifted up mine hand unto the seed of the house of Jacob, and made myself known unto them in the land of Egypt, when I lifted up mine hand unto them, saying, I [am] the LORD your God;
Numbers 11:18 - And say thou unto the people, Sanctify yourselves against to morrow, and ye shall eat flesh: for ye have wept in the ears of the LORD, saying, Who shall give us flesh to eat? for [it was] well with us in Egypt: therefore the LORD will give you flesh, and ye shall eat.
1 Kings 8:16 - Since the day that I brought forth my people Israel out of Egypt, I chose no city out of all the tribes of Israel to build an house, that my name might be therein; but I chose David to be over my people Israel.
Joshua 5:6 - For the children of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness, till all the people [that were] men of war, which came out of Egypt, were consumed, because they obeyed not the voice of the LORD: unto whom the LORD sware that he would not shew them the land, which the LORD sware unto their fathers that he would give us, a land that floweth with milk and honey.
Jeremiah 43:11 - And when he cometh, he shall smite the land of Egypt, [and deliver] such [as are] for death to death; and such [as are] for captivity to captivity; and such [as are] for the sword to the sword.
Genesis 47:6 - The land of Egypt [is] before thee; in the best of the land make thy father and brethren to dwell; in the land of Goshen let them dwell: and if thou knowest [any] men of activity among them, then make them rulers over my cattle.
Ezekiel 29:12 - And I will make the land of Egypt desolate in the midst of the countries [that are] desolate, and her cities among the cities [that are] laid waste shall be desolate forty years: and I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations, and will disperse them through the countries.
Exodus 12:42 - It [is] a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this [is] that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.
Deuteronomy 16:1 - Observe the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto the LORD thy God: for in the month of Abib the LORD thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.
Deuteronomy 17:16 - But he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses: forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you, Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.
Joshua 24:4 - And I gave unto Isaac Jacob and Esau: and I gave unto Esau mount Seir, to possess it; but Jacob and his children went down into Egypt.
Judges 6:8 - That the LORD sent a prophet unto the children of Israel, which said unto them, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, I brought you up from Egypt, and brought you forth out of the house of bondage;
Genesis 41:36 - And that food shall be for store to the land against the seven years of famine, which shall be in the land of Egypt; that the land perish not through the famine.
Deuteronomy 13:5 - And that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams, shall be put to death; because he hath spoken to turn [you] away from the LORD your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, to thrust thee out of the way which the LORD thy God commanded thee to walk in. So shalt thou put the evil away from the midst of thee.
Joshua 24:32 - And the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel brought up out of Egypt, buried they in Shechem, in a parcel of ground which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor the father of Shechem for an hundred pieces of silver: and it became the inheritance of the children of Joseph.
Joshua 5:5 - Now all the people that came out were circumcised: but all the people [that were] born in the wilderness by the way as they came forth out of Egypt, [them] they had not circumcised.
Genesis 45:23 - And to his father he sent after this [manner]; ten asses laden with the good things of Egypt, and ten she asses laden with corn and bread and meat for his father by the way.
Exodus 8:17 - And they did so; for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man, and in beast; all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt.
Ezekiel 30:6 - Thus saith the LORD; They also that uphold Egypt shall fall; and the pride of her power shall come down: from the tower of Syene shall they fall in it by the sword, saith the Lord GOD.
2 Chronicles 6:5 - Since the day that I brought forth my people out of the land of Egypt I chose no city among all the tribes of Israel to build an house in, that my name might be there; neither chose I any man to be a ruler over my people Israel