4th Century BC


399 Socrates is accused of corrupting Athenian youth and gets death sentence

396 Veii, Etruscan city, falls to Rome and the Celts; Etruscan civilization is falling

396 Rome begins conquest of Italy

395 Athens, Argos, Corinth & Thebes form a league and against Sparta

394 Sparta defeats the League

394 Greek states war with each other

391 Romans under a dictator (Camillus) defeat the Etruscans

390 Gauls sack and burn Rome but fail to take the capital

384 Birth of Aristotle (philosopher and scientist)

382 Philip II (Philip of Macedon) is born

380 Last real Egyptian dynasty the XXXth

367 The first plebeian consul is elected to the assembly

359 Illyrians invade western Macedonia

359 Philip of Macedon is elected king of Macedonia

358 Philip II repulses the Illyrian invasion and extends kingdom

356 Birth of Alexander the Great

350 Crossbow invented in China

350 Revolt of the Jews against Artaxerxes III in Persia

348 Rome signs treaty with Carthage

343 The First Samnite War between Rome and the Samnites

343 Artaxerxes III of Persia recaptures Egypt and founds the 31st dynasty

340 The Latin Wars

340 Macedonia conquers Thrace.

339 Fourth Sacred War, between Macedonia and Athens

338? The first Roman coinage

338 Tribes and cities of Latin League revolt against Rome

338 Romans are victorious at Trifanum, and the League is dissolved

338 Philip of Macedon defeats invading Athenian and Theban armies at Chaeronea

338 Philip of Macedon unites all Greece under his rule

336 Artaxerxes III is assassinated; succeeded by Darius lIl on Persian throne

336 Philip of Macedon assassinated

336 He is succeeded by his son, Alexander III, known as "the Great"

334 Alexander the Great begins campaign against Persia

334 Alexander defeats Darius III in Anatolia.

334 Lydia becomes a tributary of Macedon

333 Alexander the Great defeats Darius III again at battle of Issus.

333 Persia is conquered by Alexander the Great

333 Phrygia falls under Macedonian rule

333 Israel comes under the rule of Alexander the Great

332 Alexander takes the city of Tyre after siege

332 End of Phoenician empire

332 remants of the Persian Empire fall to Alexander the Great

332 Tyre falls to Alexander the Great

332 Alexander the Great is welcomed in Egypt, begins his new city Alexandria

331 Alexander renews Persian campaign and defeats Darius III at Arbela

331 Persian capital of Persepolis burned by Alexander the Great

331 Persians defeated at Gaugamela

330 Darius III is assassinated, leaving Alexander in control of Persia

327 Second Samnite War, Roman troops are defeated and humiliated

327 Alexander begins invasion of India

324 Alexander the Great dies (age 33) in Babylon (no named successor)

323 Alexander's body is buried at Alexandria, Egypt

323 Lydia absorbed into the Seleucid kingdom

323 Ptolemy Soter becomes pharoah of Egypt after Alexander's death

321 Alexander's generals fight the "War of the Diadochi" over the conquered lands

321 Hellenistic period begins

312 The "Via Appia" (Appian Way) and "Aqua Appia" are constructed

321 Chandragupta founds Mauryan dynasty

320 Maurya takes control of Magadha and crosses the Indus into central India

320 Egypt takes Libya as a province

310 The Etruscans and Samnites attack Rome, but are defeated at Lake Vadimo

307 Two of Alexander's generals rule Greece, (Antigonus I and Demetrius I)

306 A trade treaty is agreed between Rome and Carthage.

305 Mauryan Empire expands after the defeat of Seleucus I Nicator

304 Seleucus gives up his claim on India to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants

304 Rome makes peace with the Samnites and other enemies

305 Seleucus I becomes king, founding Seleucid dynasty (rules Syria)

301 Phrygia becomes a part of the Seleucid empire

301 Ptolemy I rules Palestine and Egypt

300 Chinese states build huge walls against the barbarians, still fight each other also

300 Seleucus controls Iran, Mesopotamia, n. Syria and most of Asia Minor