Greco-Roman

History of Rome (Books 40-45) Vol. VI

Books 40-45 of Livy's History of Rome cover the period from the Gallic Wars to the death of Cleopatra. This was a time of great change for the Roman Republic, as it expanded its territory and power.

Book 40 describes the Gallic Wars, which were fought between Rome and the Gauls from 58 to 50 BC. The wars were led by Julius Caesar, who was a brilliant military commander. Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars made him a popular figure in Rome and helped him to rise to power.

Book 41 describes the civil war between Caesar and Pompey. Pompey was another brilliant military commander, and he had been Caesar's ally in the Gallic Wars. However, the two men eventually fell out, and they went to war against each other. Caesar defeated Pompey in the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, and he became the sole ruler of Rome.

Book 42 describes the death of Caesar. Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators in 44 BC. The assassination was the result of a conspiracy by those who feared Caesar's growing power.

Book 43 describes the Second Triumvirate, which was a political alliance between Mark Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian. The triumvirate was formed after Caesar's assassination, and it ruled Rome for a period of ten years.

Book 44 describes the Battle of Actium, which was fought between Octavian and Mark Antony in 31 BC. Octavian defeated Antony, and he became the sole ruler of Rome.

Book 45 describes the death of Cleopatra. Cleopatra was the queen of Egypt, and she was an ally of Mark Antony. After Antony's defeat at the Battle of Actium, Cleopatra committed suicide.

Books 40-45 of Livy's History of Rome are a valuable source of information about a critical period in Roman history. Livy's writing is vivid and engaging, and he provides a fascinating account of the people and events of this time.

This period saw the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire. Octavian, who would later become known as Augustus, became the first Roman emperor. Under Augustus' rule, the Roman Empire entered a golden age of peace and prosperity.

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Gallic Wars - Book 5

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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History of Rome (Books 33-39) Vol. V

Books 33-39 of Livy's History of Rome cover a period of about 60 years, from the Third Punic War to the Conspiracy of Catiline. This was a time of great upheaval and change for the Roman Republic.

Book 33 describes the Third Punic War, which was fought between Rome and Carthage from 149 to 146 BC. The war ended with the destruction of Carthage and the enslavement of its population.

Book 34 describes the aftermath of the Third Punic War and the rise of the Roman general Scipio Africanus Minor. Scipio was a brilliant military commander, but he was also a controversial figure. He was accused of corruption and of trying to establish himself as a tyrant.

Book 35 describes the Numantine War, which was fought between Rome and the Numantians, a Celtic people in Spain, from 143 to 133 BC. The war was a difficult one for the Romans, but they eventually emerged victorious.

Book 36 describes the Social War, which was fought between Rome and its Italian allies from 91 to 88 BC. The war was caused by the allies' demands for Roman citizenship. The war ended with the Romans granting citizenship to all Italians, but it left a legacy of bitterness and resentment.

Book 37 describes the civil war between Marius and Sulla, which was fought from 88 to 82 BC. The war was caused by a power struggle between the two men. Marius was a popular general who supported the rights of the common people. Sulla was a wealthy aristocrat who supported the rights of the Senate. The war ended with Sulla's victory, but it caused a great deal of damage to the Roman Republic.

Book 38 describes the Mithridatic Wars, which were fought between Rome and the Pontic Kingdom from 88 to 63 BC. The wars were caused by the expansionist ambitions of Mithridates VI, the king of Pontus. Rome eventually emerged victorious, but the wars were long and costly.

Book 39 describes the Conspiracy of Catiline, which was a plot to overthrow the Roman government in 63 BC. The conspiracy was led by Catiline, a Roman aristocrat who was deeply in debt. Catiline's plot was uncovered and crushed by the Roman consul Cicero.

Books 33-39 of Livy's History of Rome are a valuable source of information about a turbulent period in Roman history. Livy's writing is vivid and engaging, and he provides a fascinating account of the people and events of this time.

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History of Rome (Books 26-32) Vol. IV

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 26: The Fate of Capua;
Book 27: Scipio in Spain ;
Book 28: The Final Conquest of Spain;
Book 29: Scipio in Africa;
Book 30: Close of the Hannibalic War;
Book 31: Rome and Macedon;
Book 32: The Second Macedonian War

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History of Rome (Books 26-30) Vol. IV

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 26: The Fate of Capua;
Book 27: Scipio in Spain ;
Book 28: The Final Conquest of Spain;
Book 29: Scipio in Africa;
Book 30: Close of the Hannibalic War

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History of Rome (Books 21-25) Vol. III

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 21: From Saguntum to the Trebia;
Book 22: The Disaster of Cannae;
23: Hannibal at Capua;
Book 24: The Revolution in Syracuse;
Book 25: The Fall of Syracuse

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History of Rome (Books 6-10)

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 6: The Reconciliation of the Orders - (389 - 366 B.C.);
Book 7: Frontier Wars - (366 - 341 B.C.);
Book 8: The First Samnite War and Settlement of Latium - (341 -321 B.C.);
Book 9: The Second Samnite War - (321 - 304 B.C.);
Book 10: The Third Samnite War - (303 - 293 B.C.)

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History of Rome (Books 1-5)

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 1: The Earliest Legends;
Book 2: The Early Years of the Republic;
Book 3: The Decemvirate;
Book 4: The Growing Power of the Plebs;
Book 5: The Veii and the Destruction of Rome by the Gauls

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Acts of the Divine Augustus

[Augustus][Greco-Roman writings]

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Civil Wars - Book 3

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Civil Wars - Book 2

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Civil Wars - Book 1

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Gallic Wars - Book 8

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Gallic Wars - Book 7

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Gallic Wars - Book 6

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Gallic Wars - Book 4

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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The Divine Augustus

"The Divine Augustus" is a title and honorific used to refer to Gaius Octavius Thurinus, more commonly known as Augustus, who was the first Emperor of Rome and a pivotal figure in Roman history. This honorific title reflects the profound impact he had on the Roman Republic and the subsequent transformation of Rome into an Empire. Here is a description of "The Divine Augustus":

Augustus, whose original name was Octavian, was born in 63 BCE and went on to become one of the most influential and revered figures in Roman history. His rule marked the end of the Roman Republic and the establishment of the Roman Empire. The title "The Divine Augustus" underscores his exalted status in Roman society and the reverence with which he was regarded by the Roman people.

Augustus rose to power in the aftermath of the Roman Civil Wars, which had left the Roman Republic in a state of turmoil. With his victory at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE, he emerged as the sole ruler of the Roman world. He wisely combined political shrewdness with military prowess and embarked on a series of far-reaching reforms and initiatives that transformed the Roman state. Key elements of his legacy include:

  1. Pax Romana: Augustus is celebrated for bringing about a period of relative peace and stability within the Roman Empire known as the "Pax Romana." His military victories and diplomatic efforts helped to quell internal strife and secure Rome's frontiers, allowing for an extended period of prosperity and cultural flourishing.
  2. Res Gestae: Augustus famously chronicled his achievements in the "Res Gestae Divi Augusti" (The Deeds of the Divine Augustus), a detailed inscription that documented his accomplishments and contributions to the Roman state. This text provides invaluable historical insights into his rule.
  3. Architectural Projects: Augustus sponsored numerous building projects and renovations, including the construction of temples, public buildings, and the famous Ara Pacis, an altar dedicated to peace and prosperity. These edifices reflected his vision of a renewed Roman state.
  4. Administrative Reforms: He implemented administrative reforms that laid the groundwork for the efficient governance of the Roman Empire, including the establishment of the principate, a form of government where the emperor held supreme power but still maintained the appearance of republican institutions.
  5. Cultural Patronage: Augustus was a patron of the arts and played a crucial role in promoting Roman literature, poetry, and architecture. His reign witnessed the flourishing of writers like Virgil, Horace, and Livy.

The title "The Divine Augustus" was not merely a reflection of his political achievements but also a product of the imperial cult that emerged during his reign, where he was officially deified, and worshiped as a god. This served to legitimize his rule and reinforce the unity of the Roman state.

Augustus' legacy endures as a seminal figure in Roman history, a brilliant statesman, and a transformative leader who shaped the course of the Roman Empire. His enduring impact can be felt in the lasting institutions, structures, and cultural achievements that continue to define the legacy of ancient Rome.

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The Divine Augustus

The Divine Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD) was the first Roman emperor. He was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, but he was adopted by his great-uncle Julius Caesar and took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, Octavian emerged as one of the most powerful men in Rome. He defeated his rivals in a series of civil wars, and he became the sole ruler of Rome in 27 BC.

Augustus was a brilliant politician and administrator. He reformed the Roman government and military, and he established a period of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. Augustus also promoted the arts and sciences, and he oversaw the construction of many public works projects, including roads, temples, and bridges.

Augustus was a popular and respected ruler. He was careful to maintain the outward forms of the Roman Republic, but he was in fact an absolute monarch. He was given the title of Augustus, which means "revered," and he was also given the title of Pater Patriae, which means "father of the fatherland."

Augustus died in 14 AD and was succeeded by his stepson Tiberius. Augustus was a complex and contradictory figure. He was a ruthless politician who waged civil wars to achieve his goals, but he was also a wise and benevolent ruler who brought peace and prosperity to the Roman Empire.

Here are some of Augustus's most important accomplishments:

  • He ended the civil wars that had plagued Rome for decades.
  • He established the Pax Romana, a period of peace and prosperity that lasted for over 200 years.
  • He reformed the Roman government and military.
  • He promoted the arts and sciences.
  • He oversaw the construction of many public works projects.

Augustus is considered to be one of the greatest Roman emperors. He was a brilliant politician and administrator, and he laid the foundation for the Roman Empire to become the dominant power in the Mediterranean world.

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Life of Vitellius

The life of Aulus Vitellius, often simply referred to as Vitellius, was marked by political intrigue, rapid rise to power, and a tumultuous reign as the Roman Emperor. Vitellius held the title of Roman Emperor for a very brief period in the year 69 CE, during the Year of the Four Emperors, a chaotic time in Roman history.

Here is an overview of the life of Vitellius:

  1. Early Life and Military Career: Aulus Vitellius was born in 15 CE in Rome, into a family of equestrian rank. He initially pursued a career in law but soon transitioned into military service. He held various military positions and earned a reputation as a capable and well-liked commander.
  2. Year of the Four Emperors: In 69 CE, a year of political upheaval in the Roman Empire, several contenders vied for the title of Emperor. Vitellius emerged as one of these contenders. He gained support from the legions stationed in the German provinces and marched on Rome.
  3. Reign as Emperor: Vitellius was declared Emperor by his supporters in Rome in April 69 CE, leading to a tumultuous and chaotic reign. His short time in power was marked by excess and extravagance. He indulged in lavish banquets and allowed his supporters to engage in acts of brutality against his rivals.
  4. Conflict with Vespasian: During his reign, Vitellius faced a significant challenge from Vespasian, a rival claimant to the throne who had support in the Eastern provinces. The two forces clashed in a series of battles, with Vespasian ultimately emerging victorious.
  5. End of Reign: As Vespasian's forces closed in on Rome, Vitellius's support waned, and his rule quickly unraveled. In December 69 CE, he was captured by Vespasian's troops. His reign had lasted for less than a year.
  6. Execution: Vitellius was captured and humiliated by his captors. He was paraded through the streets of Rome, subjected to insults and abuse from the populace, and ultimately executed. His death marked the end of his short-lived rule.

Vitellius's reign as Emperor is often remembered for its brief and tumultuous nature, during which the Roman Empire experienced a rapid succession of rulers. His rule was characterized by excessive indulgence and brutality, contrasting sharply with the more measured and capable leadership exhibited by some of his predecessors and successors. Vitellius's reign is a poignant illustration of the political instability and chaos that gripped the Roman Empire during the Year of the Four Emperors, a period marked by a series of short-lived and contested rulerships.

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Life of Domitian

Domitian (51-96 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Flavian dynasty. He was the son of Vespasian and the younger brother of Titus. Domitian was a controversial emperor, but he was also a complex and fascinating figure.

Domitian was born in Rome in 51 AD. He received a good education and was trained in the military. After his father became emperor in 69 AD, Domitian was given a number of important positions in the government. He served as consul several times and was also commander of the Praetorian Guard.

When Titus died in 81 AD, Domitian was declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard. However, his claim to the throne was disputed by some members of the Senate. Domitian eventually prevailed, and he was officially recognized as emperor by the Senate in 82 AD.

Domitian's reign was marked by both successes and failures. On the one hand, he was a successful military commander. He expanded the Roman Empire's borders and defeated the Dacians and the Chatti in two major wars. On the other hand, Domitian was also a paranoid and suspicious ruler. He executed many of his political enemies, and he was accused of being a tyrant.

Domitian was also a patron of the arts and sciences. He built a new library in Rome and supported poets and philosophers. He also oversaw the construction of a number of public works projects, including the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and the Domitian Stadium.

Domitian was assassinated in 96 AD by a group of conspirators that included members of the Senate and the Praetorian Guard. His assassination marked the end of the Flavian dynasty.

Domitian is a complex and controversial figure. He was a successful military commander, but he was also a paranoid and suspicious ruler. He was also a patron of the arts and sciences, and he oversaw the construction of a number of public works projects. Domitian's reign was marked by both successes and failures, and he remains a controversial figure to this day.

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Life of Augustus

[Nicolaus of Damascus][Greco-Roman writings]

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The Annals - Book 1 - (A.D. 14-15)

The Annals - Book 1 - (A.D. 14-15) is the first book of the Roman historian Tacitus's historical work, The Annals. It covers the events of the years 14-15 AD, the first two years of the reign of the Roman emperor Tiberius.

The book begins with a brief overview of the history of Rome, from its founding to the death of Augustus. Tacitus then turns to the reign of Tiberius, which he describes in a critical light. He portrays Tiberius as a paranoid and suspicious ruler who was obsessed with power.

Tacitus describes a number of important events that took place during Tiberius's first two years in power, including:

  • The death of Augustus and the succession of Tiberius
  • The mutiny of the legions in Pannonia and Germany
  • The trial and execution of Sejanus, Tiberius's powerful praetorian prefect
  • The death of Germanicus, Tiberius's nephew and adopted son
  • The rise of Agrippina the Elder, Germanicus's wife

Tacitus's Annals is one of the most important sources of information about the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD. He was a skilled writer and a keen observer of human nature. His work is full of vivid descriptions and insightful analyses.

Here are some of the key themes of The Annals - Book 1 - (A.D. 14-15):

  • The dangers of power and the corrupting influence of ambition
  • The importance of personal liberty and the dangers of tyranny
  • The complex relationship between the emperor and the Senate
  • The role of the military in Roman politics
  • The challenges of maintaining order and stability in a vast empire

Tacitus's Annals is a complex and challenging work, but it is also a rewarding one. It is a must-read for anyone interested in the history of the Roman Empire.

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The Annals - Book 2 - (A.D. 16-19)

The Annals - Book 2 - (A.D. 16-19) is the second book of the Roman historian Tacitus's historical work, The Annals. It covers the events of the years 16-19 AD, the third to sixth years of the reign of the Roman emperor Tiberius.

The book begins with a description of a series of natural disasters that struck the Roman Empire in 16 AD, including floods, earthquakes, and a famine. Tacitus then turns to the political events of the time, which were dominated by the growing conflict between Tiberius and the Senate.

Tacitus describes a number of important events that took place during Tiberius's third to sixth years in power, including:

  • The trial and execution of Cremutius Cordus, a historian who was accused of criticizing the emperor and his family
  • The death of Drusus Caesar, Tiberius's son
  • The exile of Agrippina the Elder and her two sons, Nero and Drusus
  • The appointment of Sejanus as Tiberius's praetorian prefect
  • The growing power and influence of Sejanus

Tacitus's Annals is one of the most important sources of information about the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD. He was a skilled writer and a keen observer of human nature. His work is full of vivid descriptions and insightful analyses.

Here are some of the key themes of The Annals - Book 2 - (A.D. 16-19):

  • The dangers of free speech and the importance of historical truth
  • The relationship between the emperor and the Senate
  • The rise and fall of Sejanus
  • The growing power of the praetorian guard
  • The importance of family and loyalty in Roman politics

Tacitus's Annals is a complex and challenging work, but it is also a rewarding one. It is a must-read for anyone interested in the history of the Roman Empire.

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The Annals - Books 1-16 (A.D. 14-66)

The Annals - Books 1-16 (A.D. 14-66) is a work by the Roman historian Tacitus that chronicles the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus in 14 AD to the death of Nero in 66 AD. It is one of the most important sources of information about this period of Roman history.

Tacitus was a skilled writer and a keen observer of human nature. His work is full of vivid descriptions and insightful analyses. He was also a critical observer of the Roman Empire, and his work is often characterized by its cynicism and pessimism.

The Annals is divided into 16 books, each of which covers a period of one or two years. Tacitus begins by describing the death of Augustus and the succession of Tiberius. He then goes on to describe the reigns of Tiberius, Gaius, Claudius, and Nero.

Tacitus's Annals is a complex and challenging work, but it is also a rewarding one. It is a must-read for anyone interested in the history of the Roman Empire.

Here are some of the key themes of The Annals - Books 1-16 (A.D. 14-66):

  • The dangers of power and the corrupting influence of ambition
  • The importance of personal liberty and the dangers of tyranny
  • The complex relationship between the emperor and the Senate
  • The role of the military in Roman politics
  • The challenges of maintaining order and stability in a vast empire

Tacitus's Annals is a valuable source of information about the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD. It is also a work of great literary merit. Tacitus was a skilled writer and a keen observer of human nature. His work is full of vivid descriptions and insightful analyses.

The Annals is a must-read for anyone interested in the history of the Roman Empire. It is also a rewarding read for anyone interested in great literature.

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The Histories - Books 1-5 (A.D. 69-70)

The Histories - Books 1-5 (A.D. 69-70) is a work by the Roman historian Tacitus that covers the events of the year of the four emperors, 69 AD. This year was a time of great turmoil and civil war in the Roman Empire, and Tacitus's work provides a valuable account of the events that took place.

Tacitus begins by describing the death of the emperor Nero in 68 AD. He then goes on to describe the civil war that ensued between four different claimants to the throne: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian.

Tacitus's work is full of vivid descriptions and insightful analyses. He portrays the events of the year of the four emperors as a time of great chaos and barbarity. He also provides a critical analysis of the characters involved, including the four emperors themselves and their supporters.

The Histories - Books 1-5 (A.D. 69-70) is a valuable source of information about the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD. It is also a work of great literary merit. Tacitus was a skilled writer and a keen observer of human nature. His work is full of vivid descriptions and insightful analyses.

Here are some of the key themes of The Histories - Books 1-5 (A.D. 69-70):

  • The dangers of civil war and the importance of political stability
  • The role of the military in Roman politics
  • The importance of personal loyalty and loyalty to the state
  • The dangers of ambition and the corrupting influence of power
  • The importance of historical truth

The Histories - Books 1-5 (A.D. 69-70) is a must-read for anyone interested in the history of the Roman Empire. It is also a rewarding read for anyone interested in great literature.

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Nero and the Great Fire of Rome

Nero and the Great Fire of Rome represent a pivotal chapter in Roman history, marked by both tragedy and controversy. Nero, the fifth Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, is particularly associated with this devastating event that occurred in 64 CE. Here is a description of Nero and the Great Fire of Rome:

Nero, the Emperor:

Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, commonly known as Nero, ascended to the Roman throne in 54 CE at the age of 16, succeeding his stepfather Claudius. Initially, his reign held promise, as he was guided by the sage counsel of the philosopher Seneca and the praetorian prefect Burrus. During the early years of his rule, Nero was regarded as a popular and youthful ruler.

The Great Fire of Rome:

The Great Fire of Rome, which broke out in 64 CE, is one of the most infamous events of Nero's reign. It raged for six days, consuming large parts of the city, and it caused widespread devastation. The exact cause of the fire remains a subject of historical debate. Nero's role in the fire has been a subject of controversy, with some ancient accounts suggesting that he may have been responsible for it or at least allowed it to happen.

Nero's Response:

Nero's handling of the fire and its aftermath was highly criticized. While he initiated relief efforts and opened his own gardens for shelter, there were allegations that he fiddled a lyre and sang a poem about the fall of Troy while Rome burned. This perception of Nero's indifference to the suffering of the citizens has been immortalized in popular culture.

Blaming Christians:

In the aftermath of the fire, Nero faced public anger and accusations of arson. In response, he sought to shift blame onto a relatively small and misunderstood religious minority, the Christians. This led to a brutal persecution of Christians, marking one of the earliest persecutions of the Christian faith in Roman history.

The Domus Aurea and Reconstruction:

Following the fire, Nero initiated the construction of a grand palace called the Domus Aurea, meaning "Golden House," which was built on the land cleared by the fire. The palace was known for its extravagance and opulence, reflecting Nero's grandiose tastes.

Downfall and Death:

Nero's reign eventually descended into tyranny and cruelty, marked by his ruthless suppression of perceived threats and political opponents. His rule came to an end in 68 CE, as a revolt against his leadership erupted. Facing the threat of execution, Nero committed suicide by stabbing himself in the throat, becoming the first Roman Emperor to end his own life.

Nero and the Great Fire of Rome remain a symbol of a turbulent period in Roman history. The fire's destruction, the perceived callousness of Nero, and his subsequent persecution of Christians have left a lasting legacy of intrigue and controversy. The Great Fire of Rome is a stark reminder of the often complex and morally ambiguous nature of historical events and the individuals who shape them.

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Geography

[Strabo][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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The Grandeur of Rome

The Grandeur of Rome, also known as The Grandeur That Was Rome, is a phrase used to describe the power, wealth, and cultural achievements of the Roman Empire at its height. The phrase is often attributed to the English poet Edward Gibbon, who used it in the title of his monumental work The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

Gibbon was not the first to use the phrase, but he helped to popularize it. In his book, Gibbon argues that the Roman Empire was the greatest civilization in history. He describes the empire's vast size and power, its wealth and prosperity, and its cultural achievements in architecture, literature, and law.

The Grandeur of Rome was on full display at the height of the empire, during the 2nd century AD. The empire stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the Persian Gulf and from England to North Africa. It was home to over 100 million people, and its economy was the largest in the world. The Romans built roads, bridges, and aqueducts that connected the empire and made trade and travel possible. They also built wspaniałe temples, palaces, and amphitheaters.

The Roman Empire was also a center of culture and learning. Roman poets, historians, and philosophers produced some of the most important works of Western literature. Roman lawyers developed a sophisticated legal system that is still used today in many countries.

The Grandeur of Rome came to an end in the 5th century AD, when the Western Roman Empire collapsed. However, the legacy of the Roman Empire continues to this day. Roman culture, law, and architecture have had a profound influence on the development of Western civilization.

The phrase "The Grandeur of Rome" is often used to evoke the image of a powerful, wealthy, and cultured empire. It is a reminder of the greatness that humanity can achieve and the importance of preserving and celebrating our cultural heritage.

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The Geography

[Claudius Ptolemy][Greco-Roman writings]

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Satire 3

[Juvenal][Greco-Roman writings]

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Immigrants in Rome

[Martial][Greco-Roman writings]

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Gallic Wars - Book 3

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Pliny-Trajan Correspondence Regarding the Christians

[Pliny the Younger][Greco-Roman writings]

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Pliny and Trajan Correspondence Regarding the Christians

[Pliny the Younger][Greco-Roman writings]

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Letters 10.25ff

[Pliny the Younger][Greco-Roman writings]

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The Grandeur of Rome

[Pliny the Elder][Greco-Roman writings]

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Description of Greece - Book 1

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 2

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 3

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 4

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 5

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 6

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 7

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 8

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 9

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 10

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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The Destruction of Corinth

[Polybius ][Greco-Roman writings]

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Life of Pyrrhus

Pyrrhus of Epirus, commonly known as Pyrrhus, was a renowned ancient Greek general and statesman who lived during the Hellenistic period in the 3rd century BCE. His life was characterized by military exploits, particularly in his efforts to expand his kingdom and defend Greek city-states. Here's a concise overview of the life of Pyrrhus:

Early Life and Background:

Pyrrhus was born in 319 BCE in the region of Epirus, which is now part of modern-day Albania and Greece. He hailed from the royal Aeacid dynasty.

Military Career:

Pyrrhus became a prominent military leader and embarked on various campaigns in the Hellenistic world. He is best known for his involvement in the Pyrrhic Wars, a series of conflicts against Rome. Pyrrhus is credited with introducing the term "Pyrrhic victory" due to his costly wins, where the price of victory seemed to outweigh the benefits.

Campaigns in Italy:

Pyrrhus was invited to Italy to aid the city of Tarentum against the expansionist Roman Republic. He achieved notable victories, such as the Battle of Heraclea and the Battle of Asculum, against the Romans. However, these victories were achieved at a great cost to his own forces.

Campaigns in Greece:

Pyrrhus later turned his attention to Greece, where he sought to aid various Greek city-states against external threats. He was involved in the wars against Antigonus Gonatas, the ruler of Macedon, and later the conflicts of the Hellenistic world.

Death and Legacy:

Pyrrhus died in 272 BCE during a battle in Argos. He left a mixed legacy: while he gained a reputation for his tactical brilliance, his costly victories and the toll on his soldiers' lives became synonymous with the term "Pyrrhic victory."

Pyrrhus's life is often remembered for his valiant military campaigns and his role in the early history of Rome's rise to power. He is considered one of the notable figures of the Hellenistic era, known for his complex and ambitious attempts to reshape the political landscape of his time.

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Life of Tiberius Gracchus

The life of Tiberius Gracchus, commonly known as Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, was marked by his passionate advocacy for agrarian reform and the rights of the common people during the late Roman Republic in the 2nd century BCE. Here's a concise overview of the life of Tiberius Gracchus:

Background:

Tiberius Gracchus was born into the influential and politically active Gracchi family in 168 BCE. His family had a history of supporting agrarian and land reform policies, which greatly influenced his own political views and career.

Military Career:

Before entering politics, Tiberius Gracchus served in the Roman military and displayed courage and valor, particularly during the Third Punic War.

Political Career:

Tiberius Gracchus entered the political arena as a tribune of the plebs, a position that allowed him to champion the interests of the common citizens. He served as tribune in 133 BCE.

Reforms:

Tiberius Gracchus's political agenda was centered on agrarian reform. He proposed land redistribution to provide landless citizens with small plots of public land, with the goal of addressing social and economic inequalities. His proposals were aimed at curbing the concentration of land ownership among the wealthy elite.

Popularity and Opposition:

Tiberius's reforms gained him a strong following among the plebeians, who were struggling with landlessness and poverty. However, they faced vehement opposition from the conservative senatorial class, who viewed his reforms as a threat to their privileges and the traditional Roman order.

Conflict and Tragedy:

The political conflict escalated, leading to violent confrontations in Rome. In 133 BCE, Tiberius and his supporters were declared enemies of the state, and he was killed in a violent clash with the senatorial forces.

Legacy:

Tiberius Gracchus is remembered as a champion of social justice and an early advocate for agrarian reform in Rome. His efforts to address land distribution and wealth inequality laid the groundwork for later political movements and contributed to the evolving dynamics of the late Roman Republic.

Tiberius Gracchus's life and reformist ideals remain a significant part of Roman history, representing the early stirrings of social and political change in a republic grappling with increasing economic disparities and political tensions between the aristocracy and the common people.

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Life of Tiberius Gracchus

Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (c. 163 – 133 BC) was a Roman politician best known for his agrarian reform law entailing the transfer of land from the Roman state and wealthy landowners to poorer citizens. He had also served in the Roman army, fighting in Africa during the Third Punic War and in Spain during the Numantine War.

Gracchus was born into an aristocratic Roman family. His father was a consul and his mother was the daughter of Scipio Africanus, a famous Roman general. Gracchus was a well-educated man and was influenced by the ideas of Greek philosophy.

In 133 BC, Gracchus was elected tribune of the plebs. In this position, he proposed a law that would have redistributed public land to poorer citizens. The law would have limited the amount of land that any one person could own and would have distributed the excess land to poor citizens in small plots.

Gracchus's law was opposed by the wealthy landowners, who would have lost a significant amount of land if the law had been passed. The landowners used their influence to try to block the law, but Gracchus was able to get it passed with the support of the plebs.

The implementation of Gracchus's law was met with resistance from the landowners. Gracchus's enemies accused him of being a tyrant and of trying to overthrow the government. In 133 BC, Gracchus was killed by a mob of his enemies.

Despite his short life and tragic death, Gracchus had a profound impact on Roman history. His agrarian reform law helped to reduce poverty and inequality in Rome. Gracchus's ideas also inspired other reformers, such as his brother Gaius Gracchus and Julius Caesar.

Gracchus is remembered as a courageous and idealistic reformer who fought for the rights of the poor. He is also seen as a symbol of the struggle for social justice.

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Life of Sulla

Lucius Cornelius Sulla, commonly known as Sulla, was a prominent Roman general and statesman who lived during the late Roman Republic in the 1st century BCE. His life was marked by military campaigns, political maneuvering, and his pivotal role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into an autocracy. Here's a concise overview of the life of Sulla:

Early Life and Background:

Sulla was born in 138 BCE into a patrician family in Rome. Little is known about his early life, but he received a proper Roman education and entered the political and military arenas.

Military Career:

Sulla's military career was marked by his participation in various campaigns, including the Jugurthine War and the Social War. However, he is best known for his leadership in the First Mithridatic War, where he fought against King Mithridates VI of Pontus.

Political Role:

Sulla's involvement in politics was significant. He served as consul twice, first in 88 BCE and again in 80 BCE. His pursuit of power and his confrontations with political rivals, including Gaius Marius, led to a series of civil conflicts and political turmoil known as the Sullan Reforms.

Sullan Reforms:

Sulla's tenure as dictator in 82 BCE marked a turning point in Roman history. He enacted a series of reforms aimed at strengthening the power of the Senate and diminishing the authority of the popular assemblies. These reforms represented a significant shift away from the traditional republican system.

Retirement and Death:

Sulla resigned from his dictatorship in 79 BCE and retired from political life. He died in 78 BCE, leaving a legacy of political transformation and the erosion of traditional republican values.

Sulla's life exemplifies the political turbulence and power struggles of the late Roman Republic. His role in establishing autocratic rule and diminishing the influence of popular assemblies had far-reaching consequences for the future of Rome, paving the way for the eventual rise of the Roman Empire.

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Life of Marius

The life of Gaius Marius was a remarkable and influential journey that unfolded during the late Roman Republic, marked by his military prowess, political career, and pivotal role in the transformation of the Roman army. Here's a concise overview of the life of Marius:

Early Life and Background:

Gaius Marius was born in 157 BCE in Arpinum, Italy, into a family of relatively humble origins. He lacked the traditional aristocratic background of many Roman political figures of his time.

Military Career:

Marius began his career as a military officer, and his skills on the battlefield soon became apparent. He distinguished himself in various military campaigns, particularly during the Jugurthine War and the wars against the invading Germanic Cimbri and Teutones.

Military Reforms:

One of Marius's most significant contributions was his overhaul of the Roman military. He introduced several reforms, including allowing landless citizens to enlist, providing for a more professional and disciplined army. These changes had a profound and lasting impact on the Roman military structure.

Consulships and Political Career:

Marius rose to the highest political office in Rome, the consulship, seven times between 107 BCE and 86 BCE. His success was partly attributed to his popularity among the soldiers and the backing of the Populares, a political faction that aimed to empower the common people.

Conflict with Sulla:

Marius's career was marked by intense political rivalry, particularly with Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Their struggle for control of the Roman state escalated into a series of civil conflicts known as the Social War and the First Mithridatic War.

Death and Legacy:

Marius's life came to a tumultuous end, with his death in 86 BCE. His legacy included military reforms that shaped the Roman army for generations and his role as a significant figure during a period of political upheaval.

Gaius Marius's life exemplified the rise of an individual from modest beginnings to the pinnacle of Roman power. His military reforms and political influence contributed to the transformation of the late Roman Republic and set the stage for the political and military dynamics that would ultimately lead to its downfall and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Life of Crassus

The life of Marcus Licinius Crassus, also known simply as Crassus, was a fascinating and multifaceted journey that unfolded during the late Roman Republic, marked by his military exploits, political career, and participation in the First Triumvirate. Here's a concise overview of the life of Crassus:

Early Life and Wealth:

Crassus was born in 115 BCE into a wealthy and influential Roman family. He inherited a significant fortune, making him one of the richest men in Rome. His wealth was largely amassed through real estate investments and slave trafficking.

Military Career:

Crassus sought to build a military reputation to match his wealth. He served in several campaigns, including the Social War and the slave revolt led by Spartacus. His most notable achievement was suppressing the Spartacus rebellion in 71 BCE, which solidified his status as a capable military commander.

Political Ambitions:

Crassus was politically ambitious and sought to match the military and political success of his contemporaries, notably Pompey and Caesar. He served as consul and supported various political factions to advance his own interests.

First Triumvirate:

Crassus formed a political alliance with Pompey and Julius Caesar, known as the First Triumvirate, in 60 BCE. This secretive partnership allowed them to exert substantial influence over Roman politics, but it was marked by tension and power struggles.

Parthian Campaign:

Crassus's ill-fated campaign against the Parthian Empire in 53 BCE ended in disaster at the Battle of Carrhae. His military blunders and the loss of his army in the harsh desert contributed to his downfall and eventual death.

Legacy:

Crassus's life was marked by his pursuit of power, which often led to ruthless and opportunistic behavior. He is remembered for his wealth, role in the First Triumvirate, and his ignominious defeat in Parthia. His career also underscores the political and social complexities of the late Roman Republic.

Crassus's life was emblematic of the ambitions and challenges faced by Roman aristocrats during a tumultuous period in Roman history. His wealth, military exploits, and political maneuvering left an indelible mark on the political landscape of the late Roman Republic.

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Life of Cicero

The "Life of Cicero" refers to the biography of Marcus Tullius Cicero, one of ancient Rome's most renowned orators, statesmen, and philosophers. Cicero's life and career spanned the late Roman Republic, and his influence on Roman politics, law, and literature has left an indelible mark on history. Here's a short description of the life of Cicero:

Early Life and Education:

Cicero was born in 106 BCE in Arpinum, a Roman town in Italy. He received an excellent education, studying under some of the finest orators and philosophers of the time. His training in rhetoric and philosophy laid the foundation for his illustrious career.

Oratory and Legal Career:

Cicero became one of Rome's greatest orators, known for his eloquence, persuasive speeches, and legal acumen. He built a successful career as an advocate and lawyer, handling numerous high-profile cases.

Political Ascent:

Cicero's political career began in the Roman Senate, where he was elected quaestor, a junior magistrate. He rose through the ranks, serving as consul in 63 BCE, one of the highest offices in the Roman Republic. His consulship marked a pivotal point in his career, as he uncovered the Catilinarian Conspiracy, a plot to overthrow the republic.

Conflict with Cataline and the Populares:

Cicero's prosecution of the Catilinarian conspirators pitted him against the populist movement led by figures like Julius Caesar and Pompey. Cicero's dedication to upholding the republic's laws and traditions put him at odds with those who sought to expand their political power.

Philosophical Works:

In addition to his political and legal career, Cicero was a prolific writer. He composed philosophical treatises, including "On the Commonwealth" and "On Duties," which explored ethical and political philosophy. His writings were influential during the Renaissance and continue to be studied today.

Exile and Return:

Cicero's political stances led to his exile in 58 BCE, but he was eventually allowed to return to Rome in 57 BCE. His exile, however, marked a significant turning point in his life and was a source of personal turmoil.

End of the Republic:

As the Roman Republic descended into civil strife and conflict, Cicero continued to advocate for a return to traditional republican values. However, the rise of figures like Julius Caesar and the eventual transition to the Roman Empire marked the end of the republic.

Legacy:

Cicero's writings and speeches are foundational to the study of classical rhetoric and are regarded as literary and philosophical classics. His commitment to the principles of republican government, eloquence, and ethics has earned him enduring respect.

The life of Cicero embodies the intellectual, political, and moral complexities of the late Roman Republic. His writings and ideals continue to influence the fields of law, rhetoric, and philosophy, making him one of the most significant figures in the history of ancient Rome.

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Life of Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar was born into a patrician family in Rome in 100 BC. He received a classical education and began his political career in the late 70s BC. In the 60s BC, he formed the First Triumvirate with Pompey the Great and Marcus Licinius Crassus. This informal political alliance allowed the three men to dominate Roman politics for several years.

In 58 BC, Caesar was elected consul and given command of the Roman provinces in Gaul. Over the next eight years, he conquered all of Gaul, expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent up to that point. Caesar's victories in Gaul made him a popular figure in Rome, and they also gave him a large and powerful army.

In 49 BC, Caesar crossed the Rubicon River with his army, sparking a civil war against Pompey and the Senate. Caesar defeated Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, and he became the sole ruler of Rome.

Caesar was assassinated on March 15, 44 BC, by a group of senators led by Brutus and Cassius. Caesar's assassination led to a new civil war, which eventually ended with the rise of his adopted son, Octavian, as the first Roman emperor, Augustus.

Caesar was a complex and controversial figure during his lifetime, and he has remained so ever since. He has been praised for his military genius, his political acumen, and his literary talents. However, he has also been criticized for his ambition, his ruthlessness, and his role in the downfall of the Roman Republic.

Despite the controversy surrounding him, Caesar is widely regarded as one of the most important figures in Roman history. His legacy continues to be felt today, and his writings are still studied by scholars and political leaders around the world.

Here is a brief timeline of Caesar's life:

  • 100 BC: Born in Rome
  • 84 BC: Becomes a priest of Jupiter
  • 78 BC: Fights in the Roman civil war
  • 73 BC: Studies rhetoric in Rhodes
  • 68 BC: Returns to Rome and begins political career
  • 65 BC: Elected aedile
  • 63 BC: Elected praetor
  • 61 BC: Governor of Further Spain
  • 60 BC: Forms the First Triumvirate
  • 59 BC: Consul of Rome
  • 58-50 BC: Conquers Gaul
  • 49 BC: Crosses the Rubicon River, sparking a civil war
  • 48 BC: Defeats Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus
  • 46 BC: Dictator of Rome
  • 44 BC: Assassinated on March 15

Caesar was a remarkable man who achieved great things in his lifetime. He was a brilliant military leader, a skilled politician, and a talented writer. His legacy continues to inspire and fascinate people today.

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The Assassination of Julius Caesar

[Plutarch ][Greco-Roman writings]

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Life of Anthony

The "Life of Anthony" typically refers to the biography of Saint Anthony of Egypt, also known as Saint Anthony the Great or Anthony of the Desert. He is renowned as one of the earliest and most prominent Christian monks and hermits in the history of Christianity. His life story has had a profound influence on Christian monasticism and spirituality. Here's a short description of the life of Saint Anthony:

Early Life:

Saint Anthony was born in Egypt around 251 CE. His early years were marked by the death of his parents, after which he dedicated himself to a life of asceticism and solitude, influenced by the Christian faith.

Monastic Life:

Anthony is often referred to as the "Father of Monasticism" because of his pioneering role in establishing Christian monasticism. He retreated to the Egyptian desert and lived a life of extreme self-discipline, prayer, and isolation.

Temptations and Triumphs:

According to Christian tradition, during his time in the desert, Anthony faced severe temptations, including visions of demons and challenges to his faith. He is famous for his spiritual resilience and steadfast devotion to God, overcoming these temptations through prayer and asceticism.

Founding Monastic Communities:

Saint Anthony's austere lifestyle and devotion to God inspired many followers. He is credited with founding or advising numerous monastic communities in the Egyptian desert, where monks sought lives of prayer, simplicity, and self-denial.

Wisdom and Teachings:

Anthony's wisdom and spiritual insights were highly sought after. He shared his experiences and guidance with those who came to him for advice, leaving a legacy of teachings that continue to inspire Christians and monastics.

Death and Legacy:

Saint Anthony passed away in 356 CE, leaving behind a legacy of monasticism that extended far beyond his time. His life and teachings were documented by early Christian writers, particularly by Saint Athanasius in his biography of Anthony.

Veneration and Feast Day:

Saint Anthony is venerated as a saint in various Christian denominations, including the Eastern Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, and Roman Catholic Churches. His feast day, known as the "Feast of Saint Anthony," is celebrated on different dates in various Christian liturgical calendars.

The "Life of Anthony" serves as a testament to the transformative power of faith, asceticism, and a life of devotion to God. Saint Anthony's pioneering role in Christian monasticism and his spiritual wisdom have had a profound and enduring impact on the development of Christian spirituality and the monastic tradition.

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Gallic Wars - Book 1

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Gallic Wars - Book 2

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Papyrus Collection of the University of Copenhagen

Contains an inventory and photographic archive of the published papyri in the Carlsberg collection. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

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Classical and Mediterranean Archaeology Homepage

Lengthy list of sites as well as search tools for classical and mediterranean archaeology, and lists of other indexes. [Index Sites] [Collections]

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Internet Classics Archive

Searchable archive of translated Greek and Roman texts. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

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