Ancient Documents

Talmudic Tractates

Zera'im ["Seeds"] Agriculture Berakoth ["Blessings"] Prayer Mo'ed ["Festivals"] Calendar & Ritual Shabbath ["Sabbath"] Sabbath observance Erubin ["Blendings"] Resolution of problems Pesachim ["Passovers"] Passover observance Yoma ["Day (of Atonement)"] Yom Kippur Rosh HaShanah ["New Year's Day"] Calendar calculations Ta'anith ["Fasting"] Occasions for fasts cHagigah ["Festival offering"] Pilgrimage feasts Nashim ["Women"] Marriage Yebamoth ["Sisters-in-Law"] Kinship & Engagements Nedarim ["Vows"] Oaths & Annulments Gittin ["Divorces"] Divorce & remarriage Sota ["Adultress"] Infidelity Kiddushin ["Marrying"] Acquiring a wife Neziqin ["Damages"] Civil & Criminal Law Baba Metzia ["Middle Gate"] Property law Sanhedrin ["Council"] Criminal law Aboda Zara ["Alien Worship"] Idolatry Aboth ["(Sayings of the) Fathers"] Wisdom sayings Qodashim ["Holy things"] Sacrifices & offerings Menachoth ["Grain Offerings"] Cereal sacrifices cHullin ["Common things"] Non-kosher animals Toharoth ["Purities"] Defilement Kelim ["Containers"] Household objects Nega'im ["Plagues"] Leprosy Parah ["(Red) Heifer"] Ritual of purification Toharoth ["Purities"] Temporary defilement Niddah ["Isolation"] Menstruation

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Apocalyptic Speculation Quotes

A Human's Cosmic Status, The Last Judgment, The Ultimate Champion, Enoch's Vision, Ascension of Enoch, Revelation of the Primal Human, The First Scribe, Enoch Taken by God, Enoch Enthroned, Transformation of Enoch, Esoteric Speculation Restricted, Proper Interpretation, Dangers of Speculation, Aqiba's Ascent, Elisha ben Abuyah's Apostasy, Replying to Heretics, Israel's Guardian Angel

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Targum and Midrash Texts

The Word of the Lord Creates, The Word as Light, The Son of Man as Divine Image, The Temptation, The Father of Cain, Eden & Gehinnom, Cain & Abel Quarrel, Jacob's Dream, Ascending & Descending, Image on the Divine Throne, Hidden & Revealed, Footsteps of the Messiah, The Kingdom of God, The Voice of the Word, The Tent of Meeting, Ascent of Moses & Descent of Jonah, The Daily Measure, Bread from Heaven, The Ultimate Revival, The King's Banquet

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Exegesis & Eschatology Texts

Rabbinical texts on the study of the Torah and about the future and Messiah. Jewish Scholarship, Targum & Midrash, Messianic Exegesis, New Covenant Eschatology,

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Prayer and Piety Texts

Quotes from the ancient rabbi's

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Pharisees and Sadducees

Josephus, Mishna and Talumdic quotes

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Rabbinic Wisdom Texts

Mishnaic writings, Hillel, Shammai and others.

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Purity and Social Relations Texts

An Unclean Cup, What Defiles?, Whose House is Dirty?, Tax Collectors Visit, A Leper's Visit, Passing Lepers, Sin causes Sickness, Gentiles & Heretics, Who profanes?, Other Interpretations of Torah, Disciples of Abraham and Balaam, Who is Hostile?, Against Trusting Secular Types, Kosher Marriage, A Woman with Child, Reason for Divorce, Letter of Divorce

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Sin and Justice Texts

Writing of the Rabbi's: Atonement for Sins, Life or Death?, Composition of a Court, Cases for the Supreme Court, Capital & Non-capital Cases, Court Protocol, Warning to Witnesses, Offenders Sentenced to Stoning, What constitutes Blasphemy?, Sabbath Violators Stoned, Hidden Witnesses, Prelude to Stoning, Stoning & Hanging, Parable of the Twins, Death by Strangulation, The Rebellious Elder, The False Prophet, Executions Suspended.

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Food and Fellowship Texts

Writings of the Rabbi's: Where Two or Three are Gathered, Daily Bread, Blessing the Meal, Blessing Wine & Bread, The Way of Torah, Price of Loose Discipline, Aqiba's Cautions, Frequent Feasting, Preparing for the Real Banquet, One who Serves.

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Religious Parties in Ancient Rabbinism

Texts. Judean-Samaritan Feud 56. Assyrians Occupy Samaria [722 BCE] --- 1 Kings 17:5-6, 24-34 57. Why Jews Exclude Samaritans --- Kuthim 2.7 58. Samaritan Temple --- Josephus, Antiquities 11.342-346 59. Temple Rivalry --- Josephus, Antiquities 13.74, 77-79 60. Samaritans Desecrate Judean Temple -- Josephus, Antiquities 18.29-30 61. Murdered Galilean Avenged ---- Josephus, Jewish War 2.232-237 Pharisees & Sadducees 62. Three Jewish Sects --- Josephus, Jewish War 2.119 63. Argument over Oral Torah --- Josephus, Antiquities 12.297-298 64. Principles & Popularity of Pharisees --- Josephus, Antiquities 18.12-15 65. Sadducees differ from Pharisees --- Josephus, Jewish War 2.164-166 66. Rabbinic Lament over Sadducean Brutality --- Tosefta, Menachoth 13.21 67. Tradition of the Elders --- Mishna, Aboth 1.1 68. Standards for Disciples --- Mishna (supplement), Aboth de R. Nathan A 3 69. Hillel justifies Oral Tradition --- Babylonian Talmud, Shabbath 31a 70. The Yoke of Torah --- Mishna, Aboth 3.5 71. Deviants from Torah Rejected --- Mishna, Aboth 3.12 72. Saying & Doing --- Tosefta, Parah 4.7 73. Torah & Propagation --- Tosefta, Yebamoth 8.7 74. Seven Types of Pharisees --- Babylonian Talmud (supplement), Aboth d Rabbi Nathan 37.4 75. False Pharisees --- Babylonian Talmud, Sotah 22b Essenes & Dead Sea Scrolls 76. Essenes are Rural Poor --- Philo, Every Good Man is Free 12.75-77 77. Dead Sea Settlement of Essenes --- Pliny, Natural History 5.15.73 78. Some Essenes Marry --- Josephus, Jewish War 2.160 79. Essene Monastic Rules --- Josephus, Jewish War 2.120-126, 135-147 80. Communal Property at Qumran --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule (1QS) 1.11-13 81. Deviants from Torah Excommunicated --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule (1QS) 8.21-23 82. Directions for the Instructor --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule (1QS) 9.12-16 83. Essene Worship & Communal Meal --- Josephus, Jewish War 2.128-133 84. Communal Order at Qumran --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule (1QS) 6.2-5 85. Council of Twelve --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule (1QS) 8.1-4 Initiations: Baptism & Unity 86. Essene Initiation --- Josephus, Jewish War 2.137-142 87. The Qumran Covenant --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule (1QS) 1.1-11 88. Purification of Initiates at Qumran --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule (1QS) 3.6-12 89. Ultimate Agent of the Holy Spirit --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule (1QS) 4.18-23 90. Two Spirits --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule (1QS) 3.15-21 91. Rabbinic Proselyte Baptism --- Talmud (appendix), Gerim 1.1-5 92. Proselytes likened to Israel --- Talmud (appendix), Gerim 4.3 93. Christian Baptism --- Paul, Galatians 3.26-28 94. Christian Unity --- Paul (?), Ephesians 4.4-7, 13

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Social Order Texts

Sacred Days and Seasons 154. Sabbath Rest --- Exodus 20:8-11 155. Covenanters' Sabbath Rules --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant (CD) 10.17-23 156. Covenanters: No Aid for Animals --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant (CD) 11.13-14 157. Rabbinic Definition of Work --- Mishna, Shabbath 7.2 158. Postponing the Sabbath --- Mishna, Shabbath 19.1 159. Rabbis: Feed Animals --- Babylonian Talmud, Shabbath 128a 160. Plucking Grain on Sabbath --- Babylonian Talmud, Shabbath 128a 161. Childbirth on the Sabbath ---- Mishna, Shabbath 18.2 162. Life-saving on the Sabbath --- Babylonian Talmud, Shabbath 132a 163. Healing on the Sabbath --- Mishna, Shabbath 22.6 164. Pain on the Sabbath ---- Mishna, Shabbath 14.4 165. Covenanters Imprison Sabbath Violators -- Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant (CD) 12.3-6 166. Daily Sacrifice & Passover --- Mishna, Pesachim 5.1 167. The Passover Sacrifice --- Mishna, Pesachim 5.5-7 168. Passover Meal --- Mishna, Pesachim 10.1 Sin & Justice 169. Atonement for Sins --- Mishna, Yoma 8.9 170. Life or Death? --- Babylonian Talmud, Shabbath 32a 171. Composition of a Court --- Mishna, Sanhedrin 1.6 172. Cases for the Supreme Court --- Mishna, Sanhedrin 1.5 173. Capital & Non-capital Cases --- Mishna, Sanhedrin 4.1 174. Court Protocol --- Mishna, Sanhedrin 4.3 175. Warning to Witnesses --- Mishna, Sanhedrin 4.5 176. Offenders Sentenced to Stoning --- Mishna, Sanhedrin 7.4 177. What constitutes Blasphemy? --- Mishna, Sanhedrin 7.5 178. Sabbath Violators Stoned ---- Mishna, Sanhedrin 7.8 179. Hidden Witnesses --- Mishna, Sanhedrin 7.10 180. Prelude to Stoning --- Mishna, Sanhedrin 6.1-2 181. Stoning & Hanging --- Mishna, Sanhedrin 6.4 182. Parable of the Twins --- Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 46b 183. Death by Strangulation --- Mishna, Sanhedrin 11.1 184. The Rebellious Elder --- Mishna, Sanhedrin 11.4 185. The False Prophet --- Mishna, Sanhedrin 11.5-6 186. Executions Suspended --- Babylonian Talmud, Shabbath 37b Jesus & Christians 187. Testimonium Flavianum --- Josephus, Antiquities 18.63-64 188. Jews Expelled from Rome --- Suetonius, Lives of the Caesars 5.25 189. Nero Persecutes Christians in Rome --- Tacitus, Annals 15.44 190. A Rabbinic View of Jesus' Execution --- Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 43a 191. Jesus' Age --- Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 106b 192. Eliezer's Lament --- Mishnah, Sota 9.15 193. A Rabbi Arrested for 'Heresy' --- Babylonian Talmud, Aboda Zara 16b-17a 194. Healing in Jesus' Name Forbidden --- Tosefta, cHullin 2.22-23

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Ancient Roman Catapult Picture

A machine for hurling heavy stones. The "catapulta" was one of the three common types of artillery ("tormenta"), used by the Romans in storming a town.

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Taylor-Schechter Genizah

Taylor-Schechter collection of the Cairo Genizah documents. Very early Jewish papyri. [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

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Kodesh

Hebrew Bible and basic rabbinic texts (Mishna, Tosefta, and Talmuds). You need Hebrew fonts to use this. [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

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Classical Resources

Links, organizations, languages, materials, resources, journals and more.

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Megosearch

This tool is something I use EVERYDAY! I made it so that I could find information fast. Try it and you`ll see what I mean. Just type in a keyword and click on one of the logo buttons. If you have any suggestions for a reference site with a good search engine please let me know.

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The Official U.S. Time

Have you ever wondered what time it is....EXACTLY? Here is a good source with a neat Java program. You can even watch where the sun is coming up. Just click the region you want and there ya go!!!

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The Romans

HTML Version of BKA 40a "The Romans" - Part one. Bible History Online

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The Tanach (Masoretic Text)

Institute of Practical Bible Education with Instructions for Viewing the Hebrew Text.

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Download the Files for Mishnah

Electronic Book Files [Logos Research Systems, Inc.]

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Mishnah Tractate Avot

Ethics Of The Fathers Chapter 1 - 5

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The Hebrew New Testament

To view the text you will need the free Acrobat Reader.

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