Rome

Ballista (Stone Thrower)

Concepts found in the catapult and the bow were combined to design the ballista. Rope springs were set in the frame angled to each other in the form of a "V", which increased the power. A very sturdy frame accommodated the extra torque, which meant extra weight, and less maneuverability. Note that the wood disk at the base of the ratchet pulls has holes evenly spaced along the circumference, allowing the ratchet pulls to be lifted out and into the next hole. Making quick work of pulling back the release pin and the loaded stone.
This design was one of three incarnations of this type of weapon.
The Scorpio (Dart Thrower) circa 50 BC, fired a 27 inch bolt. It had a wooden construction, and its bow arms were curved to help increase the amount of twist in the rope, and therefore greater range.
The Cheiroballistra, circa 100 AD, was a major improvement over the scorpio. It was sturdier than its predecessor (the Scorpio), it was lighter than the Ballista, and it had a greater range. The frame was made of metal which allowed the rope springs to be spread farther apart which made it more powerful, and also had the added benefit of making it easier to sight the target. The springs were encased in bronze cylindrical sleeves to help protect them from the weather. A modern reconstruction of the Cheiroballista was built and tested. It was proven to be a very accurate weapon.
The main advantage of any of these weapons was that they could be built quickly and were easily handled by two men.

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Roman Fort Picture

A typical plan of a Roman fort from about 50 BC to 200 AD. The best examples are near Hadrians Wall on the border of Scotland and North England, where there are remnants of seventeen forts. There are also surviving examples in Germany, Scotland, the Middle East, and North Africa. Many Roman forts on the outskirts of the empire started as nothing more than tents surrounded by a wood fence on a mound of dirt called a "rampart". A deep ditch was dug surrounding the fence. This dirt was used to help make the rampart. Whenever possible, the back side of the fort would back up to a river for water, defense, and travel.

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Legionary Soldier Picture

Legionary soldiers were the infantry ("pedites"), who formed the backbone of the Roman army. This group consisted of Roman citizens between the ages of seventeen and forty-six, most of whom volunteered to serve for twenty years as professional soldiers. The clothing consisted of a tunic ("tunica"), a short-sleeved woolen undergarment, reaching almost to the knees or a woolen cloak ("sagum") for severe weather. Leather shoes ("caligae") had heavy hobnailed soles, fastened on by straps. The defensive armor consisted of a breastplate ("lorica"), made of leather and strengthened with metal bands, a helmet ("galea") and a curved, rectangular shield ("scutum"). The offensive weapons were the javelin ("pilum") about 6 feet long fitted with a 2-foot iron shaft with a pointed head, and the heavy, pointed, two-edged sword ("gladius"), about 2 feet long which was used in close combat.

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Battle on a Bridge Picture

The Roman Cocles Horatius held back the Etruscan army of Porsenna from the wooden Sublician bridge alone until it could be demolished. Horatius swam across the Tiber River to safety despite his wounds.

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Piece of a Roman Helmet

Fragmment of a Roman Helmet cheek plate. A helmet,"galea", was one of the defensive armor of a legionary soldier. It was made of leather or metal, often ornamented with a crest.

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Seven Hills of Rome Gallery

Culture, People, Military, Mythology, Places, Architecture, Government, Latin. KET Distance Learning.

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Christian Catacombs of Rome

Includes the outline, history, and importance of these catacombs where the Christians started burying their dead underground.

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Saturnalia: Winter Solstice in Pagan Rome

Includes the holiday's timing, associated festivals, and deities honored.

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Information about Ancient Rome

Roman History (with timeline) Roman Art Roman Architecture Roman Environment (with maps) Roman Religion Roman Clothing Roman Language and literature Roman Food Roman Science Roman People Roman Economy Roman Games (with gladiators and circuses) Roman Government

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Rome Landmarks and Historical Sites

Rome Landmarks and Historic Sites A WorldWeb.com travel guide to Landmarks and Historic Sites in Rome, Latium, Italy.

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Ancient Rome

Find out why Rome wasn't built in a day! Explore its Colosseum, Forums, and the Circus Maximus, as well as the city of Pompeii.

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Voyage Back in Time: Ancient Greece and Rome

Designed to introduce students in grades 3-5 to the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome.

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Amazing Magnificent Colossal Cruise Through Time and History

Travel back in time at this ThinkQuest site to learn about dinosaurs, Ancient Rome and Egypt, the Dark Ages, the Renaissance, the American Revolution, and World War II.

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Rome: Daily Life

Read about how the city of Pompeii helps us understand what daily life during the Roman Empire was like. From Odyssey Online.

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Virtual Walkthrough of Rome

Over 280 pictures of the Colosseum and parts of the Forum Romanum, arranged so you can "walk" around these ancient monuments.

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The Romans

HTML Version of BKA 40a "The Romans" - Part one. Bible History Online

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