Legionary Soldier Picture
Legionary soldiers were the infantry ("pedites"), who formed the backbone of the Roman army. This group consisted of Roman citizens between the ages of seventeen and forty-six, most of whom volunteered to serve for twenty years as professional soldiers. The clothing consisted of a tunic ("tunica"), a short-sleeved woolen undergarment, reaching almost to the knees or a woolen cloak ("sagum") for severe weather. Leather shoes ("caligae") had heavy hobnailed soles, fastened on by straps. The defensive armor consisted of a breastplate ("lorica"), made of leather and strengthened with metal bands, a helmet ("galea") and a curved, rectangular shield ("scutum"). The offensive weapons were the javelin ("pilum") about 6 feet long fitted with a 2-foot iron shaft with a pointed head, and the heavy, pointed, two-edged sword ("gladius"), about 2 feet long which was used in close combat.