Ancient Texts

Widow's Petition Ostracon

This pottery was discovered with 8 lines of Hebrew text. Legal Petition written around the 9th""7th centuries BC....

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The Pilate Inscription

The Pilate Inscription [text & interpretation] Language: Latin; Medium: limestone; Size: 82 centimeters high 65 centimeters wide; Length: 4 lines of writing; Genre: Building Dedication Dedicator: Pontius Pilate (praefect of Judea) Approximate Date: 26-37 CE; Place of Discovery: Caesarea, Israel; Date of Discovery: 1961; Current Location: Israel...

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Josephus' References to Crucifixion

"Josephus (b. 37 C.E.) is our best literary source for the practice of crucifixion in Israel during the Greco-Roman period. As a general in command of the Jewish forces of Galilee in the Great Revolt against Rome (66-73 C.E.), he reports his attempts to save the lives of three crucified captives by appealing directly to the Roman general Titus. One...

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Josephus on early 1st Century Roman Palestine

Selected texts from Josephus on early 1st Century Roman Israel by Dr. James D. Tabor. ARCHELAUS'S ETHNARCHY IS REDUCED INTO A [ROMAN] PROVINCE. THE SEDITION OF JUDAS OF GALILEE. THE THREE SECTS. THE DEATH OF SALOME. THE CITIES WHICH HEROD AND PHILIP BUILT. PILATE OCCASIONS DISTURBANCES. TIBERIUS PUTS AGRIPPA INTO BONDS BUT CAIUS FREES HIM FROM THEM...

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Josephus on John the Baptizer

Selected texts from Josephus on early 1st Century Roman Israel by Dr. James D. Tabor. Antiquities of the Jews XVIII Chapter 5. HEROD THE TETRARCH MAKES WAR WITH ARETAS, THE KING OF ARABIA, AND IS BEATEN BY HIM AS ALSO CONCERNING THE DEATH OF JOHN THE BAPTIST. HOW VITELLIUS WENT UP TO JERUSALEM; TOGETHER WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF AGRIPPA AND OF THE POSTE...

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Josephus on the Death of James

Selected texts from Josephus on the Death of James, brother of Jesus, in 62 C.E. by Dr. James D. Tabor. Josephus, Antiquities Book 20: chapter 9 CONCERNING ALBINUS UNDER WHOSE PROCURATORSHIP JAMES WAS SLAIN; AS ALSO WHAT EDIFICES WERE BUILT BY AGRIPPA....

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Harmony of the Gospels

This chart organizes events from the life of Christ. The events are in approximate chronological order. When an event appears in more than one gospel, the parallel accounts are grouped together....

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The Hammurabi Stele Text

THE HAMMURABI STELE. Partially Retold in English, by Stan Rummel, Director of The Humanities Program, Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, Texas. "In the following selections, I have frequently changed the grammar and sequence of words from that of the original text, and I have omitted sections of material, so that what is given will read compreh...

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The Flood Narrative From the Gilgamesh Epic

Translation by E.A. Speiser, in Ancient Near Eastern Texts (Princeton, 1950)...

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The Complete Revised Standard Version

Old and New Testaments and Apocrypha....

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