Mount Scopus

Mount Scopus in Wikipedia

Mount Scopus (Hebrew הַר הַצּוֹפִים (Har HaTsofim), Arabic جبل المشارف Ǧabal al-Mašārif, lit. "Mount Lookout"), جبل المشهد Ǧabal al-Mašhad, جبل الصوانة) is a mountain (elevation: 2710 feet or 826 meters above sea level) in northeast Jerusalem, Israel. In the wake of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Mount Scopus became a UN protected Jewish exclave within Jordanian-occupied territory until the Six-Day War in 1967. Today, Mount Scopus lies within the municipal boundaries of the city of Jerusalem. History [edit]Antiquity Overlooking Jerusalem, Mount Scopus has been strategically important as a base from which to attack the city since antiquity. A Roman Legion camped there in 66 CE.[1] Again in 70 CE Mount Scopus was used as a base to carry out a siege of the city by the 12th, 15th and 5th Legions (the 10th legions position being on the Mount of Olives).[2] The Crusaders used it as a base in 1099.[citation needed] [edit]Modern era After the ceasefire agreement of November 30, 1948, which established the division of East and West Jerusalem, Israel controlled the western part of the city while Jordan controlled the east. Several demilitarized "no man's land" zones were established along the border, one of them Mount Scopus.[3] Fortnightly convoys carrying supplies to the university and hospital located in the Israeli part of the demilitarized zone on Mount Scopus were periodically held up by Jordanian troops.[4] Access to hospital and university campus was through a narrow road, a mile and a half long, passing through the Arab neighbourhood of Sheikh Jarrah.[5] Arab sniper fire on vehicles moving along the access route became a regular occurrence, and road mines were laid. When food and supplies at the hospital begun to dwindle, a large convoy carrying doctors and supplies set out for the besieged hospital, leading to an attack that became known as the Hadassah medical convoy massacre.[5] Article VIII of the 1949 Armistice Agreements signed by Israel and Jordan in April 1949[6] called for a resumption of "the normal functioning of the cultural and humanitarian institutions on Mount Scopus and free access thereto; free access to the Holy Places and cultural institutions and use of the cemetery on the Mount of Olives; resumption of operation of the Latrun pumping station; provision of electricity for the Old City; and resumption of operation of the railroad to Jerusalem."[6] In January 1958, Francis Urrutia, a representative of the UN Secretary-General, tried to persuade Jordan to abide by Article VIII, but without success.[4] In May 1958, Jordanian soldiers fired on Israeli patrols, killing a UN officer and four Israeli policemen. Ralph Bunche, assistant to UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld visited Jerusalem and Amman to find a solution, followed by Hammarskjöld himself, again unsuccessfully.[4] The Mount Scopus Agreement signed on July 7, 1948 regulated the demilitarised zone around Mount Scopus and authorized the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization to settle disputes between the Israelis and Jordanians. Two Jewish-owned plots in al-Issawiya, known as Gan Shlomit or Salomons Garden, were purchased by Mrs. V.F. Salomons in 1934 and sold to the Gan Shlomit Company, Ltd. in 1937.[7] This land was surrounded by a fence, but clashes erupted when Arabs living on the other side of the fence sought to cultivate land, pick olives and carry out repairs on homes close to the fence. The Arabs were requested not to work closer than fifty metres from the fence unless prior permission was granted by the Israeli police.[7] There were two versions of the demilitarization agreement one was initialled by Franklyn M. Begley, a UN official; the local Jordanian commander and the Israeli local commander. The other was not initialled by the Israeli local commander. Having two versions of the map was the cause many incidents within the Mount Scopus area.[7]...

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