Ashur-rabi II was one of the longest-reigning kings of Assyria, reigning for 41 years. Little is known about his reign, of which few records survive. He was apparently a younger son of Ashurnasirpal I. Following the reigns of his elder brother, Shalmaneser II, and his nephew Ashur-nirari IV, he became king in 1013 BC. He began his reign with setbacks; Aramaean Kings took the cities of Pitru and Mutkinu (which had been taken and colonized by Tiglath Pileser I.) This led to him forcing his way to the Mediterranean and constructing a stele in the area of Mount Atalur.
He reigned until his death in 972 BC, where he was succeeded by his son Ashur-resh-ishi II.