Akko or Acre

Akko: The Maritime Capital of the Crusader Kingdom

The port city of Akko (also known as Acre) is located on a promontory at the northern end of Haifa Bay. The earliest city was founded during the Bronze Age at Tel Akko (in Arabic Tel el-Fukhar mound of the potsherds), just east of the present-day city. Akko is mentioned in ancient written sources as an important city on the northern coast of the Land of Israel. The wealth of finds, including remains of fortifications uncovered in the excavations at Tel Akko, attest to the long and uninterrupted occupation of the site during biblical times. The ancient site of Akko was abandoned during the Hellenistic period. A new city named Ptolemais, surrounded by a fortified wall, was built on the site of present-day Akko. The Romans improved and enlarged the natural harbor in the southern part of the city, and constructed a breakwater, thus making it one of the main ports on the eastern Mediterranean coast. The importance of Akko a well protected, fortified city with a deepwater port is reflected in its eventful history during the period of Crusader rule in the Holy Land. [ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES] [Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs]

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Acre in Wikipedia

Acre (Hebrew: עַכּוֹ‎, Akko; Arabic: عكّا‎, ʻAkkā),[1] is a city in the Western Galilee region of northern Israel and is situated on a low promontory at the northern extremity of Haifa Bay. Acre is one of the oldest continuously inhabited sites in the country and historically, was regarded as a strategic coastal link to the Levant. Acre is the holiest city of the Bahá'í Faith.[2] As of 2007, the city had a predominantly Jewish population of 46,000.[3] History [edit]Ancient period Acre is one of the oldest continuously inhabited sites in Israel.[4] The name Aak, which appears on the tribute-lists of Thutmose III (c. 16th century BC), may be a reference to Acre.[citation needed] The Amarna letters also mention a place named Akka,[5] as well as the Execration texts, that pre-date them.[6] In the Hebrew Bible, (Judges 1:31), Akko is one of the places from which the Israelites did not drive out the Canaanites. It was in the territory of the tribe of Asher. According to Josephus, Akko was ruled by one of Solomon's provincial governors. Throughout the period of Israelite rule, it was politically affiliated with Phoenicia rather than the Philistines. Around 725 BC, Akko joined Sidon and Tyre in a revolt against Shalmaneser V.[7] Greek and Roman periods Greek historians refer to the city as Ake, meaning "cure." According to the Greek myth, Heracles found curative herbs here to heal his wounds.[8] Josephus calls it Akre. The name was changed to Antiochia Ptolemais shortly after Alexander the Great's conquest, and then to Ptolemais, probably by Ptolemy Soter, after the partition of the kingdom of Alexander the Great.[9] Old City of Acre* UNESCO World Heritage Site State Party Israel Type Cultural Criteria ii, iii, v Reference 1042 Region** Asia-Pacific Inscription history Inscription 2001 (25th Session) * Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. ** Region as classified by UNESCO. Strabo refers to the city as once a rendezvous for the Persians in their expeditions against Egypt. About 165 BC Judas Maccabeus defeated the Syrians in many battles in Galilee, and drove them into Ptolemais. About 153 BC Alexander Balas, son of Antiochus Epiphanes, contesting the Syrian crown with Demetrius, seized the city, which opened its gates to him. Demetrius offered many bribes to the Maccabees to obtain Jewish support against his rival, including the revenues of Ptolemais for the benefit of the Temple in Jerusalem, but in vain. Jonathan Maccabaeus threw in his lot with Alexander, and in 150 BC he was received by him with great honour in Ptolemais. Some years later, however, Tryphon, an officer of the Syrians, who had grown suspicious of the Maccabees, enticed Jonathan into Ptolemais and there treacherously took him prisoner. The city was captured by Alexander Jannaeus, Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Tigranes II of Armenia. Here Herod built a gymnasium, and here the Jews met Petronius, sent to set up statues of the emperor in the Temple, and persuaded him to turn back. St Paul spent a day in Ptolemais (Acts 21:7). A Roman colonia was established at the city, Colonia Claudii Cæsaris.[citation needed] After the permanent division of the Roman Empire in 395 CE, Akko was administered by the Eastern (later Byzantine) Empire...

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Ancient History of Acre

Acre is one of the oldest continuously inhabited sites in Israel.[4] The name Aak, which appears on the tribute-lists of Thutmose III (c. 16th century BC), may be a reference to Acre.[citation needed] The Amarna letters also mention a place named Akka,[5] as well as the Execration texts, that pre-date them.[6] In the Hebrew Bible, (Judges 1:31), Akko is one of the places from which the Israelites did not drive out the Canaanites. It was in the territory of the tribe of Asher. According to Josephus, Akko was ruled by one of Solomon's provincial governors. Throughout the period of Israelite rule, it was politically affiliated with Phoenicia rather than the Philistines. Around 725 BC, Akko joined Sidon and Tyre in a revolt against Shalmaneser V.[7] [Wikipedia]

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Greek and Roman History of Acre

Greek historians refer to the city as Ake, meaning "cure." According to the Greek myth, Heracles found curative herbs here to heal his wounds.[8] Josephus calls it Akre. The name was changed to Antiochia Ptolemais shortly after Alexander the Great's conquest, and then to Ptolemais, probably by Ptolemy Soter, after the partition of the kingdom of Alexander the Great.[9] Strabo refers to the city as once a rendezvous for the Persians in their expeditions against Egypt. About 165 BC Judas Maccabeus defeated the Syrians in many battles in Galilee, and drove them into Ptolemais. About 153 BC Alexander Balas, son of Antiochus Epiphanes, contesting the Syrian crown with Demetrius, seized the city, which opened its gates to him. Demetrius offered many bribes to the Maccabees to obtain Jewish support against his rival, including the revenues of Ptolemais for the benefit of the Temple in Jerusalem, but in vain. Jonathan Maccabaeus threw in his lot with Alexander, and in 150 BC he was received by him with great honour in Ptolemais. Some years later, however, Tryphon, an officer of the Syrians, who had grown suspicious of the Maccabees, enticed Jonathan into Ptolemais and there treacherously took him prisoner. The city was captured by Alexander Jannaeus, Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Tigranes II of Armenia. Here Herod built a gymnasium, and here the Jews met Petronius, sent to set up statues of the emperor in the Temple, and persuaded him to turn back. St Paul spent a day in Ptolemais (Acts 21:7). A Roman colonia was established at the city, Colonia Claudii Cæsaris.[citation needed] After the permanent division of the Roman Empire in 395 CE, Akko was administered by the Eastern (later Byzantine) Empire. [Wikipedia]

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