The lush land of the Nile, called "Mizraim" in Hebrew was one of the oldest cradles of civilization and truly the land of history. A fertile and powerful land to the south of Israel, prominent throughout the history of the Old Testament, especially during the time of the Exodus.

Egypt enjoyed three periods of greatness:

  1. The "Old Kingdom" or "Pyramid Age" from about 2600-2200 BC.
  2. The "Middle Kingdom" (12th Dynasty) was about 2060-1786 BC.
  3. The "New Kingdom" or the "Empire" included the 18th-20th Dynasties, and covers the period from about 1500-1070 BC. Memphis was capital and Thebes was the sacred city.

Egypt began to decline during the Late Period from about 1070-330 BC.