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They were known as the "Cathari" or "Puritans" of that time period, having been organized in Southern France about 1170. They strongly opposed the Roman Catholic Church, called for reforms, and circulated the New Testament as widely as possible. Pope Innocent III called for a crusade against them in 1208, even after many of their numbers had been burned at the stake. There were many more crusades against them until they were finally exterminated.