IONIC COLUMNS: Temple of Artemis, Sardis 330 B.C.
The Ionic column is distinguished by its volute or scroll capital. More slender than the Doric column, its height is eight or nine times the diameter of the shaft. Normally the Ionic column has twenty-four flutes which are separated by fillets or soft edges; some examples have as many as forty-eight flutes. There is a column base, the most notable type consisting of a torus or convex molding above, a three part concave molding, and a torus below. All the carving is on a high level. These Ionic columns from the temple of Artemis were left unfluted when work on the temple stopped. Fluting ordinarily takes place after the column is assembled.