Athens Second half 5th century B.C. The Acropolis means the highest city. Originally it was a fortress, a place of protection. During a peaceful period in the second half of the fifth century B.C., under the leadership of Pericles and the artistic supervision of Phidias,the Athenians built their sanctuary to Athena on the old acropolis site, high up on an isolated mountain cliff. In luminous Pentelic marble silhouetted against the sky, they created in a brief thirty-year period perhaps the greatest architectural achievement in the world.

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