Tutankhamun in Wikipedia
Tutankhamun (alternately spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon), Egyptian twt-ˁnḫ-ı͗mn, approx. [təwaːt ʕaːnəx ʔaˈmaːn]; 1341 BC –
1323 BC) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c.1333 BC – 1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period
of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom. His original name, Tutankhaten, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun
means "Living Image of Amun". In hieroglyphs the name Tutankhamun was typically written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom
that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase to show appropriate reverence. He is possibly also the Nibhurrereya of
the Amarna letters. He was likely the 18th dynasty king 'Rathotis' who, according to Manetho, an ancient historian, had reigned
for nine years - a figure which conforms with Flavius Josephus's version of Manetho's Epitome.
The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter of Tutankhamun's nearly intact tomb received worldwide press coverage. It sparked a renewed
public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamun's burial mask remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artifacts from his
tomb have toured the world. In February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten (mummy
KV55) and his sister/wife (mummy KV35YL), whose name is unknown but whose remains are positively identified as "The Younger Lady"
mummy found in KV35.
Tutankhamun was born in 1341 BC, the son of Akhenaten (formerly Amenhotep IV) and one of his sisters. As a prince he was known
as Tutankhaten. He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine, taking the reign name of Tutankhamun. His wet-nurse
was a certain woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara.
When he became king, he married his half sister, Ankhesenepatan, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun. They had two
daughters, both stillborn.
Given his age, the king must have had very powerful advisers, presumably including General Horemheb, the Vizier Ay, and Maya the
"Overseer of the Treasury". Horemheb records that the king appointed him lord of the land as hereditary prince to maintain law. He
also noted his ability to calm the young king when his temper flared.
In his third regnal year, Tutankhamun reversed several changes made during his father's reign. He ended the worship of the god
Aten and restored the god Amun to supremacy. The ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to
its priesthood. The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhenaten abandoned. This is also when he changed his name
As part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at Thebes and Karnak, where he dedicated a temple
to Amun. Many monuments were erected, and an inscription on his tomb door declares the king had "spent his life in fashioning the
images of the gods". The traditional festivals were now celebrated again, including those related to the Apis Bull, Horemakhet and
Opet. His restoration stela says:
The country was economically weak and in turmoil following the reign of Akhenaten. Diplomatic relations with other kingdoms had
been neglected, and Tutankhamun sought to restore them, in particular with the Mitanni. Evidence of his success is suggested by
the gifts from various countries found in his tomb. Despite his efforts for improved relations, battles with Nubians and Asiatics
were recorded in his mortuary temple at Thebes. His tomb contained body armour and folding stools appropriate for military
campaigns. However, given his youth and physical disabilities, which seemed to require the use of a cane in order to walk,
historians speculate that he did not take part personally in these battles.
Health and appearance
Tutankhamun was slight of build, and was roughly 170 cm (5 ft 7 in) tall. He had large front incisors and the overbite
characteristic of the Thutmosid royal line to which he belonged. He also had a pronounced dolichocephalic (elongated) skull,
although it was within normal bounds and highly unlikely to have been pathological. Given the fact that many of the royal
depictions of Akhenaten often featured such an elongated head, it is likely an exaggeration of a family trait, rather than a
distinct abnormality. The research also showed that the Tutankhamun had "a slightly cleft palate" and possibly a mild case of
Cause of death
There are no surviving records of Tutankhamun's final days. What caused Tutankhamun's death has been the subject of considerable
debate. Major studies have been conducted in an effort to establish the cause of death.
Although there is some speculation that Tutankhamun was assassinated, the general consensus is that his death was accidental. CT
scan taken in 2005 shows that he had badly broken his leg shortly before his death, and that the leg had become infected. DNA
analysis, conducted in 2010 showed the presence of malaria in his system. It is believed that these two conditions, combined, led
to his death....