Trajan in Roman Biography

Tra'jan, (Lat. Traja'nus; It. Trajano, tRa-ya'no ; Fr. Trajan, tRi'zhoN'; Ger. Trajan, tRa-yan',1 or, more fully, Mar'cua Ul'pl-us Ner'va Tra-ja'nus, Emperor of Rome, born near Seville, in Spain, about 52 A.n., was the son of Trajan, an Iberian officer, whom he accompanied in his campaigns in Asia' Minor. He was chosen consul in 91 A.n., and was afterwards appointed to command the legions on the Lower Rhine. His eminent virtues and ability obtained for him the favour and confidence of the emperor Nerva, who adopted him and made him his successor. On the death of Nerva, in 98 A.D., Trajan was proclaimed emperor, and soon after marched against Decebalus, King of the Dacians, whom he repeatedly defeated. In 106 A.D. Dacia became a Roman province, and a column (which is still extant) was erected on the Forum Trajani, in commemoration of these victories, by Apollodorusof Damascus. In the year 115 he commanded in person an army which invaded Parthia, and defeated the Parthians in several battles. He took Ctesiphon, the capital of Parthia, and deposed the king of that country. In 116 he descended the Tigris to the Persian Gulf. He was returning to Rome, when he died, without issue, at Selinus, in Cilicia, in 117 a.d., and was succeeded by Hadrian. Trajan was one of the greatest and best emperors of Rome. He is commended for his moderation, sound judgment, and the simplicity of his mode of living. Yet he persecuted the Christians, and presided as judge at the tribunal when the martyr Ignatius was sentenced to death. Among his friends was Pliny the Younger, who wrote a " Panegyric on Trajan." SeeTn.i.KMONT, " Histoiredes Emperettrs;" Rittkr, "Trajanus in Lucent reproduces," 1768 ; H. Franckk, " Zur Geschichte Trajan's," etc., 1840: Gknf.rsich, "Trajan ; biographisches GemiiMe," 1811 ; Msrivale, "History of the Romans tinder the Empfre ;" Mokalss, " Hechos y Diclios de Trajano," 1654; "Nottvelle Biojrapliie Generate. "

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