The Rise of Herod the Great (51 - 37 BCE)

In 49 BCE, in Rome, a civil war erupted between Pompey and Julius Caesar. At first, Hyrcanus II and Antipater supported Pompey, as most from the east did, but quickly switched allegiances, when it was discovered that Caesar and his allies had been victorious over Pompey, who had fled to Egypt but who was murdered in 48 BCE in Egypt. In gratitude for the help given to Caesar, he appointed Hyrcanus as ethnarch of the Jews in 47 BCE and Antipater procurator.

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