The First Epistle to Timothy in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

FIRST EPISTLE. Its authenticity as Paul's writing, and its canonical authority as inspired, were universally recognized by the early church with the solitary exception of the Gnostic Marcion. 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy are in the Peshito Syriac of the second century. The Muratorian Fragment on the canon in the same century acknowledges them. The Pastoral Epistles, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus, have a mutual resemblance. Irenaeus (adv. Haeres. i. and iii. 3,. section 3-4; 4:16, section 3; 2:14, section 8; 3:11, section 1; 1:16, section 3) quotes 1 Timothy 1:4; 1 Timothy 1:9; 1 Timothy 6:20; 2 Timothy 4:9-11-21; Titus 3:10. Clement of Alex. (Strom. 2:383, 457; 3:534, 536; 1:350) quotes 1 Timothy 4:1-20; 1 Timothy 6:20-21; 1 Timothy 6:2 Timothy as to deaconesses; Titus 1:12. Tertullian (de praescriptione Haereticorum, 25 and 6) quotes 1 Timothy 1:18; 1 Timothy 6:13; 1 Timothy 6:20; 2 Timothy 1:14; 2 Timothy 2:2; Titus 3:10-11; and adv. Marcion, Scorp. 13, compare 2 Timothy 4:6. Eusebius includes the two epistles to Timothy and Titus in "the universally acknowledged Scriptures." Theophilus of Antioch (ad Autolycum 3:14) quotes 1 Timothy 2:1-2; Titus 3:1. Caius (in Eusebius' Ecclesiastes Hist. vi. 20) recognizes their authenticity. Clement of Rome (First Epistle to Cor. 29) quotes 1 Timothy 2:8. Ignatius in the second century (epistle to Polycarp 6) alludes to 2 Timothy 2:4. Polycarp in the same century (Epistle to Philipp. 4-5) alludes to 1 Timothy 6:7; 1 Timothy 6:10; 2 Timothy 2:4; 2 Timothy 2:11-12; and (in chapter 9) to 2 Timothy 4:10. Hegesippus, in the end of second century (in Eusebius, Ecc. Hist. iii. 32), alludes to 1 Timothy 6:3; 1 Timothy 6:20. Athenagoras at the same period alludes to 1 Timothy 6:16. Heresies opposed in the Pastoral Epistles. Ascetic Judaism and legalism (1 Timothy 1:7; Titus 1:10; Titus 1:14; Titus 3:9) on the one hand, and incipient gnosticism on the other (1 Timothy 1:4), of which the theory that a twofold principle existed from the beginning, evil as well as good, appears in germ, 1 Timothy 4:3, etc. In 1 Timothy 6:20 the term gnosis, "science," itself occurs. Another Gnostic error, "that the resurrection is past," is noticed (2 Timothy 2:17-18; compare 1 Corinthians 15:12-32-33). The Judaism herein refuted is not that controverted in the earlier epistles, namely, that which joined the law with faith in Christ, for justification. The intermediate phase appears in epistle to Colossians (Colossians 2), namely, that which superadded ascetical will worship and angel worship to Judaism. In the epistle to Philippians (Philemon 3:2; Philemon 3:18-19) the further stage appears, immoral practice accompanying false doctrine as to the resurrection. The pastoral epistles - 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus - exhibit the mattered godlessness which followed superstition as superstition had followed legalism. Not knowing the true use of "the law" (1 Timothy 1:7-8) the false teachers "put away good conscience," as well as "the faith" (1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 4:2), "spoke lies in hypocrisy...

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