Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator in Wikipedia
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Theós Philopátōr, lived 62 BC/61 BC–January 13, 47 BC?,
reigned from 51 BC) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty (305–30 BC) of Egypt.
Co-ruler of Egypt, inner turmoil -
Son of Pharaoh Ptolemy XII of Egypt (80–58 BC and 55–51 BC), he succeeded his father in the spring of 51 BC as co-ruler of Egypt by
his marriage to his older sister Cleopatra VII of Egypt (69–30 BC). In October of 50 BC, Ptolemy XIII was promoted to senior ruler
along with her, although the eunuch Pothinus acted as regent for him.
In the spring of 48 BC, Ptolemy XIII and Pothinus attempted to depose Cleopatra VII due to her increasing status as Queen. Her face
appeared on minted coins, for example, while Ptolemy XIII's name was omitted on official documents. Ptolemy intended to become sole
ruler, with Pothinus acting as the power behind the throne.
Civil war -
They managed to force her to flee to Syria, but she soon organized her own army and a civil war began in Egypt. Soon their other
sister started to claim the throne as Arsinoe IV (48–47 BC), further complicating the situation.
At this point defeated Roman general Pompey the Great came to Egypt seeking refuge from his pursuing rival Julius Caesar. Initially,
Ptolemy XIII and Pothinus pretended to have accepted his request, but on September 29, 48 BC, Pothinus had the general murdered, in
hopes of winning favor with Caesar when the victorious general arrived. When Caesar did arrive he was presented with the head of his
deceased rival and former ally, but reportedly, instead of being pleased, reacted with disgust and ordered that Pompey's body be
located and given a proper Roman funeral. Cleopatra VII proved more successful in winning Caesar's favor and became his lover. Caesar
arranged the execution of Pothinus and the official return to the throne of Cleopatra VII, though she had never officially abdicated
her marriage to Ptolemy XIII.
Still determined to depose Cleopatra VII, Ptolemy XIII allied himself with Arsinoe IV. Jointly, they organized the factions of the
army loyal to them against those loyal to Cleopatra VII and the relatively small part of his army that had accompanied Caesar to
Egypt. The battle between the warring factions occurred in mid-December of 48 BC inside Alexandria itself, which suffered serious
damage, including (according to some sources) the burning of some of the buildings which comprised the Library of
The arrival of Roman reinforcements from Pergamum gave the victory to Caesar and Cleopatra VII, forcing Ptolemy XIII and Arsinoe IV to
flee the city. Ptolemy XIII reportedly drowned on January 13, 47 BC while attempting to cross the Nile. Whether he was attempting to
flee or was seeking negotiations remains uncertain from sources of the time. Cleopatra VII remained the unchallenged ruler of Egypt,
although she named their younger brother Ptolemy XIV of Egypt (47–44 BC) her new co-ruler.