Mount Gerizim in Wikipedia
Mount Gerizim (Samaritan Hebrew Ar-garízim, Arabic جبل جرزيم Jabal Jarizīm, Tiberian Hebrew הַר גְּרִזִּים Har
Gərizzîm, Standard Hebrew הַר גְּרִיזִּים Har Gərizzim) is one of the two mountains in the immediate vicinity of
the West Bank city of Nablus (Biblical Shechem), and forms the southern side of the valley in which Nablus
is situated, the northern side being formed by Mount Ebal. The mountain is one of the highest peaks in the
West Bank, as well as being higher than most mountain peaks in Israel, and rises to 2849 feet (881 meters)
above sea level, 228 feet (69.5 meters) shorter than Mount Ebal. The mountain is particularly steep on
the northern side, is sparsely covered at the top with shrubbery, and lower down there is a spring with a
high yield of fresh water.
Two villages are situated on the mountain ridge, Kiryat Luza (Samaritan), and Har Bracha (Jewish).
Trilingual road signs directing toward Mount Gerizim and Kiryat Luza ("Shomronim" - Samaritans in Hebrew)
The mountain is sacred to the Samaritans who regard it, rather than Jerusalem's Temple Mount, as having
been the location chosen by Yahweh for a holy temple. The mountain continues to be the centre of Samaritan
religion to this day, and over 90% of the worldwide population of Samaritans live in very close proximity
to Gerizim, mostly in Kiryat Luza, the main village. The passover is celebrated by the Samaritans on Mount
Gerizim, and it is additionally considered by them as the location of the near-sacrifice of Isaac (the
masoretic and Septuagint versions of Genesis state that this happened on Mount Moriah which Jews
traditionally identify as the Temple Mount). According to classical rabbinical sources, in order to
convert to Judaism, a Samaritan must first and foremost renounce any belief in the sanctity of Mount
Biblical account --
In the masoretic text of Deuteronomy and the Septuagint version of the same, an instruction is given to
build an altar on Mount Ebal, constructed from natural (rather than cut) stones, to place stones there and
whiten them with lime, to make peace offerings on the altar, eat there, and write the words of this law
on the stone. According to the Samaritan Pentateuch version of Deuteronomy, the instruction actually
concerns Mount Gerizim, which the Samaritans view as a holy site.
An instruction immediately subsequent to this orders that, once this is done, the Israelites should split
into two groups, one to stay on Mount Ebal and pronounce curses, while the other goes to Mount Gerizim and
pronounces blessings. The tribes of Simeon, of Levi, of Judah, of Issachar, of Joseph, and of Benjamin
were to be sent to Gerizim, while those of Reuben, of Gad, of Asher, of Zebulun, of Dan, and of Naphtali,
were to remain on Ebal. No attempts to explain this division of tribes either by their Biblical
ethnology or by their geographical distribution have been generally accepted in academic circles.
The text goes on to list twelve curses, which were to be pronounced by the Levite priesthood and answered
by the people with Amen. These curses heavily resemble laws (eg cursed be he who removes his neighbour's
landmark), and they are not followed by a list of blessings described in a similarly liturgical framework;
scholars believe that these more likely represent what was written on the stones, and that the later list
of six explicit blessings, six near-corresponding explicit curses, were originally in this position
in the text. The present position of these explicit blessings and curses, within a larger narrative of
promise, and a far larger narrative of threat (respectively), is considered to have been an editorial
decision for the post-exilic second version of Deuteronomy (Dtr2), to reflect the deuteronomist's worldview
after the Babylonian exile had occurred.
In the Book of Joshua, after the Battle of Ai, Joshua built an altar of unhewn stones there, the Israelites
then made peace offerings on it, the law of Moses was written onto the stones, and the Israelites split
into the two groups specified in Deuteronomy and pronounced blessings and curses as instructed there.
There is some debate between textual scholars as to whether this incident in Joshua is one account or
spliced together two different accounts, where one account refers to Joshua building an altar, and making
sacrifices on it, while the other account refers to Joshua placing large stone slabs there that had been
whitened with lime and then had the law inscribed on them. Either way there are some who believe that
the sources of Joshua predate Deuteronomy, and hence that the order to build the altar and make the
inscription is likely based on these actions in the sources of Joshua, rather than the other way round,
possibly to provide an aetiology for the site acceptable to the deuteronomist's theology.
Much later in the Book, when Joshua was old and dying, he gathered the people together at Shechem, and gave
a farewell speech, and then wrote these words in the book of the law of Yahweh, and set up a stone as a
witness, placing it next to the sanctuary of Yahweh, under the oak tree. Depending on the way in which
the sources of Joshua were spliced together, this may just be another version of the earlier narrative
Joshua placing the whitened stones slabs with the law inscribed on them, and some scholars believe that
this narrative may have originally been in an earlier location within the Book of Joshua.
Scholars consider it plausible for the sanctuary to have been pre-Israelite. It is possible that the
name of the mountain is indicative of this, as it is thought that Gerizim may mean mountain of the
Gerizites, a tribe in the vicinity of the Philistines that was conquered by David. A straitforward
etymology for Gerizim would give the meaning of mountain cut in two. According to the narrative about
Jotham in the Book of Judges, Shechem was a site where there was a sanctuary of El-Berith, also known as
Baal-Berith, meaning God of the covenant and Lord of the covenant, respectively; scholars have
suggested that the Joshua story about the site derives from a covenant made there in Canaanite times.
In the narrative of Judges, the pillar that was in Shechem is seemingly significant enough to have given
its name to a nearby plain, and this pillar is thought to be likely to have been a totem of El-Berith;
the Joshua story, of a stone being set up as a witness, simply being an attempt to provide an aetiology in
accordance with later Israelite theology.
In the Biblical narrative, the oak tree, seemingly next to the sanctuary, was evidently in existence as
early as the time of the Patriarchs, as Jacob is described in the Book of Genesis as having buried the
idols of strange gods (formerly worshipped by his household) beneath it. According to a midrash, one of
these Idols, in the shape of a dove, was later recovered by the Samaritans, and used in their worship on
Post-exile history --
After the end of the Babylonian Captivity, a large schism between the Samaritans and Judaism developed,
with the Samaritans, but not the Jews, regarding Mount Gerizim as the holy place chosen by God.
Subsequently, the Samaritans built a temple there, arguing that this was the real location of the Israelite
temple which had been destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, probably in the 5th or 4th century BCE. Though it
had been destroyed by his time, Josephus plainly states that the temple on Gerizim was similar to that in
Jerusalem (prior to the Herodian expansion of the latter), and that it was surrounded by fortifications.
The religious tension between the Jews and the Samaritans lead to the temple on Gerizim being destroyed by
either John Hyrcanus in the 2nd century BC (according to Josephus) or by Simeon the Just (according to the
Talmud), who was permitted to do so by Alexander the Great, the land at that time falling under Alexander's
empire. However, the mountain evidently continued to be the holy place of the Samaritans, as it is
mentioned as such by the Gospel of John and coins produced by a Roman mint situated in Nablus included
within their design a depiction of the temple; surviving coins from this mint, dated to 138-161 CE, show a
huge temple complex, statues, and a substantive staircase leading from Nablus to the temple itself.
In Jesus' discussion with the Samaritan woman he revealed his feeling about worship there: "Jesus said to
"Believe me, woman, The hour is coming when neither in this mountain nor in Jerusalem will YOU people
worship the Father. YOU worship what YOU do not know; we worship what we know, because salvation originates
with the Jews. Nevertheless, the hour is coming, and it is now, when the true worshipers will worship the
Father with spirit and truth"
Eventually, when Christianity became the dominant religion in the Roman Empire, Samaritans were barred from
worshiping on Mount Gerizim. In 475 AD a church was built on its summit. In 529 AD, Justinian I made
Samaritanism illegal, and arranged for a protective wall to be constructed around the church. As a
result, the same year, Julianus ben Sabar lead a pro-Samaritan revolt, and by 530 AD had captured most of
Samaria, destroying churches and killing the priests and officials. However in 531 AD, after Justinian
enlisted the help of Ghassanids, the revolt was completely quashed, and surviving Samaritans were mostly
enslaved or exiled. In 533 AD Justinian had a castle constructed on Mount Gerizim to protect the church
from raids by the few disgruntled Samaritans left in the area.
As a result of the fortified church, and previous Samaritan temple, extensive ruins still exist at the
somewhat plateau-like top of Gerizim. The line of the wall around the church can easily be seen, as can
portions of the former castle, and initial archaeological study of the site postulated that the castle
built by Justinian had utilised stones from an earlier structure on the site (probably being the Samaritan
temple). In the centre of the plateau is a smooth surface, containing a hollow, which archaeologists
consider to be reminiscent of dolmens found in southwestern Syria, and which Samaritans consider to be a
portion of their former temple.
A more substantial archaeological survey was undertaken in the middle of the 20th century, while the site
was in the possession of Jordan, in the region of the mountain known as Tell el-Ras, situated on the
northernmost peak at the end of the northern ridge. This excavation, which continued under Israel's
jurisdiction, uncovered Corinthian columns, a large rectangular platform (65m by 44m) surrounded by 2m
thick and 9m high walls, and an 8m wide staircase leading down from the platform to a marbled esplanade.
 The complex also has a series of cisterns in which Late Roman ceramics were found. These
discoveries, now named Structure A, have been dated to the time of Hadrian, due to numismatics and external
literary evidence, and are believed to be a temple dedicated to Zeus.
Underneath these remains were found a large stone structure built on top of the bedrock. This structure,
now known as Structure B, nearly half cubic (21m by 20m in width and length, and 8.5m high), consists
almost entirely of unhewn limestone slabs, fitted together without any binding material, and has no
internal rooms or dividing walls. The structure was surrounded by a courtyard similar to the platform
above it (being 60m by 40m in size with 1.5m thick walls), and was dated to during or before the Hellenic
era by ceramics found in a cistern cut into the bedrock at the northern side. The excavating
archaeologist considered Structure B to be the altar built by the Samaritans in the 5th or 6th century BC.
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