Magog in Fausset's Bible Dictionary
Genesis 10:2; Ezekiel 38-39. A race, like Gomer (the
Cimmerians), dwelling in the N. country. Its weapon was the
bow, its warriors were all horsemen. Probably the European
Scythians, dominant in the region between the Caucasus and
Mesopotamia for 30 years from 630 to 600 B.C., who were
famous for the bow and fought almost wholly on horseback.
They invaded Israel, and besieged Ascalon under the Egyptian
Psamineticus. They appear in Ezekiel inhabiting "the sides
(the remote recesses) of the N.," adjacent to Togarmah
(Armenia) and the "isles," i.e. maritime regions of Europe
(Ezekiel 39:2; Ezekiel 39:8; Ezekiel 39:6; Ezekiel 38:6;
Ezekiel 38:15). Connected with Meshech (the Moschi) and
Tubal (the Tibarenes).
Their own traditions represent them to have lived
first in Asia near the Araxes, afterward to have possessed
the whole country to the ocean and lake Maeotis, and the
plain to the Tandis or Don. Mixed with the Medes they became
the Sarmatians, from whence sprang the Russians. Derived
from Sanskrit mah "great" and ghogh "mountain" (Persian).
(See for the prophetical sense, etc., (See GOG.) The Syrians
in the middle ages applied Magog as a geographical term to
Asiatic Turkey; the Arabians applied it to the region
between the Caspian and Euxine. Forced by the Massagetae
from the N. of Caucasus, they swept down into Asia Minor,
took Sardis (629 B.C.), and thence passed into Media and
defeated Cyaxares, 624. Their name thus was a terror in the
East just before Ezekiel's prophecies, and naturally
symbolizes rude violence. Their origin is clearly Japhetic,
as Genesis 10:2 implies.