Hasmonean Walls in Wikipedia

With Jewish independence restored in the mid second century BCE, the Hasmoneans quickly launched an effort to populate and fortify the Upper City, the western hill abandoned after the Babylonian sacking of Jerusalem. According to 1 Maccabees 10, 10-11, "Jonathan dwelt in Jerusalem and began to rebuild and restore the city. He directed those who were doing the work to build the walls and encircle Mount Zion with squared stones, for better fortification; and they did so."[26], while according to chapter 13, 10, Simon Maccabeus "assembled all the warriors and hastened to complete the walls of Jerusalem, and he fortified it on every side."[22] These date the construction of the Hasmonean city wall, also known as the first wall, between 142 and 134 BCE. Encompassing the City of David and the western hill, the walls were not entirely new but also incorporated elements of the earlier fortifications, such as the Iron Age "Israeli Tower" unearthed in the Jewish quarter. The wall stretched from the Tower of Hippicus (near the site of the modern Tower of David) eastward toward the Temple Mount, and south to the Southwestern Hill (modern Mount Zion, a misnomer[27]), then east to the Pool of Siloam, and finally north, meeting the wall of the Temple Mount.[28] Remains of the first wall can still be seen in several places: In the citadel known as the Tower of David. In Mamilla, west of the contemporary city walls, where remains of Hasmonean fortifications were unearthed. In the Jewish Quarter, in and around the "Israeli Tower" and the remains of what may have been the "garden gate" mentioned by Josephus. At the base of the eastern wall of the Temple Mount. Once the walls were complete, the Upper City became the residence of Jerusalem's rich and affluent citizens.

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