Epistle to the Romans in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

AUTHENTICITY, GENUINENESS. Peter (2 Peter 3:15-16) quotes Romans 2:4, calling it "Scripture." The epistles of Clement (Cor. 35) and Polycarp (ad Philippians 6) quote respectively Romans 1:29-32 and Romans 14:10-12. Irenaeus (iv. 27, section 2) quotes it as Paul's (Romans 4:10-11). Melito's "Hearing of Faith" is entitled from Romans 10 or Galatians 3:2-3. The Muratorian Canon, Syriac and Old Latin versions, have it. Heretics admitted its canonicity; so the Ophites (Hippol. Haer. 99; Romans 1:20-26); Basilides (238, Romans 8:19-22; Romans 5:13-14); Valentinus (195, Romans 8:11); the Valentinians Heracleon and Ptolemaeus; Tatian (Orat. 4, Romans 1:20), and Marcion's canon. The epistle of the churches of Vienne and Lyons (Eusebius, H. E. v. 1; Romans 8:18); Athenagoras (13, Romans 12:1; Romans 12:37; Romans 1:24); Theophilus of Antioch (Autol. 79, Romans 2:6; Romans 2:126; Romans 13:7-8). Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria often quote it. DATE AND PLACE OF WRITING. Paul wrote while at Corinth, for he commends to the Romans Phoebe, deaconess of Cenchreae, the port of Corinth (Romans 16:1-2). He was lodging at Gaius' house (Romans 16:23), a chief member of the Corinthian church (1 Corinthians 1:14). Erastus, "treasurer" ("chamberlain", KJV), belonged to Corinth (2 Timothy 4:20; Acts 19:22). The time was during his visit in the winter and spring following his long stay at Ephesus (Romans 20:3); for he was just about to carry the contributions of Macedonia and Achaia to Jerusalem (Romans 15:25-27; compare Acts 20:22), just after his stay at Corinth at this time (Acts 24:17; 1 Corinthians 16:4; 2 Corinthians 8:1-2; 2 Corinthians 9:1, etc.). His design of visiting Rome after Jerusalem (Romans 15:23-25) at this particular time appears incidentally from Acts 19:21. Thus, Paul wrote it in his third missionary journey, at the second of the two visas to Corinth recorded in Acts. He remained then three months in Greece. He was on the point of sailing to Jerusalem when obliged to alter his purpose; the sea therefore was by this time navigable. It was not late in the spring, for, after passing through Macedon and visiting the coast of Asia Minor, he still expected to reach Jerusalem by Pentecost (Acts 20:16). He must therefore have written the epistle to the Romans early in spring, A.D. 58. Thus, it is logically connected with the epistles to the Galatians and Corinthians. He wrote 1 Corinthians before leaving Ephesus; 2 Corinthians on his way to Corinth; and Galatians at Corinth, where also he wrote Romans. Hence, the resemblance of these two epistles in style and substance. The epistle to the Galatians and the two almost contemporaneous epistles to the Corinthians are the most intense in feeling and varied in expression of Paul's epistles...

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