Eleazar in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
el-e-a'-zar, e-le-a'-zar ('el-`azar; Eleazar, "God is
(1) The 3rd son of Aaron by Elisheba (Ex 6:23; Nu 3:2). He
married one of the daughters of Putiel, who bore him
Phinehas (Ex 6:25). With his father and 3 brothers he was
consecrated to the priest's office (Ex 28:1). After the
destruction of Nadab and Abihu, he occupied a more important
position, and he and Ithamar "ministered in the priest's
office in the presence of Aaron their father" (Lev 10:6 f;
Nu 3:4; 1 Ch 24:2 ff). He was given the oversight of the
Levites and had charge of the tabernacle and all within it
(Nu 3:32; 4:16). To Eleazar fell the duty of beating out for
an altar covering the censers of Korah and his fellow-
conspirators who had attempted to seize the priesthood (Nu
16:37,39). On the death of Aaron, Eleazar succeeded him (Nu
20:25 ff). He assisted Moses with the census after the
plague in the plains of Moab (Nu 26:1 ff), and with Moses
and the elders heard the petition of the daughters of
Zelophehad who wished to be served as heirs to their father
(Nu 27:1 ff). After the entrance into Canaan, Eleazar and
Joshua gave effect to the decision arrived at by giving the
daughters of Zelophehad a share in the land of Manasseh
(Josh 17:4). He was priest and adviser to Joshua, the
successor of Moses (Nu 27:19; 31:12 ff), whom he also
assisted in partitioning Canaan among the tribes (Nu 34:17;
Josh 14:1; 19:51; 21:1). He was buried in the hill (the
Revised Version, margin "Gibeah") of Phinehas his son in the
hill country of Ephraim (Josh 24:33). For some reason
unknown the descendants of Ithamar seem to have held the
chief position among the priests from Eli till the accession
of Solomon, when Abiathar was sent into retirement, and
Zadok, the descendant of Eleazar, was appointed in his place
(1 Ki 2:26 ff). Ezra was a descendant of Zadok (Ezr 7:1 ff);
and the high priest's office was in the family of Zadok till
the time of the Maccabees.
(2) The son of Abinadab, sanctified to keep the ark of
Yahweh, when it was brought from Beth-shemesh to Kiriath-
jearim after being sent back by the Philistines (1 Sam 7:1).
(3) The son of Dodai, one of David's three mighty men. A
famous feat of arms with David at Ephes-dammim is recorded
(2 Sam 23:9 f; 1 Ch 11:12 f where he is named the son of
(4) A Levite, a son of Mahli, a Merarite. It is recorded
that he had no sons, but daughters only, who were married to
their cousins (1 Ch 23:21,22; 24:28).
(5) A priest who accompanied Ezra from Babylon (Ezr 8:33);
the son of Phinehas. (5) and (6) may be identical.
(6) A priest who took part in the dedication of the wall of
Jerusalem (Neh 12:42).
(7) A son of Mattathias and brother of Judas Maccabeus (1
Macc 2:5; 6:43 f; 2 Macc 8:23).
See ASMONEANS; MACCABEES.
(8, 9) Two others are mentioned in 1 Macc 8:17; 2 Macc 6:18
(10) An ancestor of Jesus, 3 generations before Joseph (Mt
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