Dead Sea in Wikipedia
The Dead Sea Arabic البحر الميت al-Bahr al-Mayyit (help·info), Hebrew: יָם הַמֶּלַח, Yām Ha-Melaḥ, "Sea of Salt"), also called the
Salt Sea, is a salt lake bordering Jordan to the east, and Israel to the west. Its surface and shores are 422 metres (1,385 ft)
below sea level, the lowest elevation on the Earth's surface on dry land. The Dead Sea is 378 m (1,240 ft) deep, the deepest
hypersaline lake in the world. It is also one of the world's saltiest bodies of water, with 33.7% salinity, though Lake Assal
(Djibouti), Garabogazköl and some hypersaline lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica (such as Don Juan Pond) have reported
higher salinities. It is 8.6 times more salty than the ocean. This salinity makes for a harsh environment where animals cannot
flourish, hence its name. The Dead Sea is 67 kilometres (42 mi) long and 18 kilometres (11 mi) wide at its widest point. It lies
in the Jordan Rift Valley, and its main tributary is the Jordan River.
The Dead Sea has attracted visitors from around the Mediterranean basin for thousands of years. Biblically, it was a place of
refuge for King David. It was one of the world's first health resorts (for Herod the Great), and it has been the supplier of a
wide variety of products, from balms for Egyptian mummification to potash for fertilizers. People also use the salt and the
minerals from the Dead Sea to create cosmetics and herbal sachets. In 2009, 1.2 million foreign tourists visited on the Israeli
The sea has a density of 1.24 kg/L, making swimming difficult.
In Hebrew, the Dead Sea is Yām ha-Melaḥ (help·info), meaning "sea of salt" (Genesis 14,3). In prose sometimes the term Yām ha-
Māvet (ים המוות, "sea of death") is used. In Arabic the Dead Sea is called al-Bahr al-Mayyit (help·info) ("the Dead Sea"), or
less commonly baḥrᵘ lūṭᵃ (بحر لوط, "the Sea of Lot"). Another historic name in Arabic was the "Sea of Zoʼar", after a nearby town
in biblical times. The Greeks called it Lake Asphaltites (Attic Greek ἡ Θάλαττα ἀσφαλτῖτης, hē Thálatta asphaltĩtēs, "the
Asphaltite sea"). The Bible also refers to it as Yām ha-Mizraḥî (ים המזרחי, "the Eastern sea") and Yām ha-‘Ărāvâ (ים הערבה,
"Sea of the Arabah")
The Dead Sea is an endorheic lake located in the Jordan Rift Valley, a geographic feature formed by the Dead Sea Transform (DST).
This left lateral-moving transform fault lies along the tectonic plate boundary between the African Plate and the Arabian Plate.
It runs between the East Anatolian Fault zone in Turkey and the northern end of the Red Sea Rift offshore of the southern tip of
The Jordan River is the only major water source flowing into the Dead Sea, although there are small perennial springs under and
around the Dead Sea, creating pools and quicksand pits along the edges. There are no outlet streams.
Rainfall is scarcely 100 mm (3.9 in) per year in the northern part of the Dead Sea and barely 50 mm (2.0 in) in the southern part.
The Dead Sea zone's aridity is due to the rainshadow effect of the Judean Hills. The highlands east of the Dead Sea receive more
rainfall than the Dead Sea itself.
To the west of the Dead Sea, the Judean Hills rise less steeply and are much lower than the mountains to the east. Along the
southwestern side of the lake is a 210 m (690 ft) tall halite formation called "Mount Sodom"...