Augustus Caesar in Fausset's Bible Dictionary
The first Roman emperor, reigning at Christ's birth (Luke 2:1,
etc.). His decree that all the world should be taxed, each
going to his own city, was the divinely ordered (Micah 5:2)
occasion of Jesus' birth taking place at Bethlehem. Born 63
B.C. Also called Octavius and Octavianus from his father, who
died while he was young. Educated by his great uncle Julius
Caesar, triumvir with Antony and Lepidus. Dissension having
arisen, Octavianus overcame Antony, and gained supreme power
at the battle of Actium, 31 B.C.
Saluted emperor (imperator, military commander in
chief originally), and surnamed Augustus Caesar, "majestic."
Leaving the names and rights of the chief republican officers
unchanged, he united them all, one by one, in himself. Herod,
who had been on Antony's side, he not only pardoned, but even
increased in power; Herod thereby became attached to his
dynasty, and built him a temple of marble near the sources of
the Jordan. Augustus Caesar died at Nola in Campania, in his
76th year, A.D. 14. Some time before his death he associated
Tiberius with himself in the empire (Luke 3:1).
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