Ancient Arad is located in the Negev, some 30 km.
northeast of Beer Sheva, on a hill that rises 40 m. above
the surrounding plain.
During the 18 seasons of excavation conducted from 1962-
1984, it became clear that the remains of ancient Arad
are located in two separate areas and are from two
distinct periods. The Canaanite city (3rd millennium BCE)
was located mainly on the southern slope of the hill. On
the summit of this hill, several fortresses were built in
the period of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (10th-6th
centuries BCE) and also later, during the Persian,
Hellenistic and Roman periods (5th century BCE to 4th
century CE). In the Early Arab period (7th-10th century),
a fortified caravansary was established to protect the
trade routes which passed there.
Arad is mentioned in the Bible in the story of the failed
attempt to reach the Promised Land (Numbers 21:1) and in
the list of the Canaanite kings defeated by the Children
of Israel. (Joshua 12:14) There exists, however, a
historical-chronological problem with this biblical
account, as there is no evidence that Tel (Heb., mound)
Arad was inhabited during the Late Bronze Age. Scholars
suggest that the King of Arad mentioned in the Bible was
in fact the ruler of the Kingdom of Arad, "the Negev of
Arad" (Judges 1:16), whose capital was another city.
(Jewish Virtual Library)