Ahmose I in Wikipedia
Ahmose I (sometimes written Amosis I, "Amenes" and "Aahmes" and meaning Born of the Moon) was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder
of the Eighteenth dynasty. He was a member of the Theban royal house, the son of pharaoh Tao II Seqenenre and brother of the last pharaoh
of the Seventeenth dynasty, King Kamose. During the reign of his father or grandfather, Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos, the rulers of
Lower Egypt. When he was seven his father was killed, and he was about ten when his brother died of unknown causes, after reigning
only three years. Ahmose I assumed the throne after the death of his brother, and upon coronation became known as Neb-Pehty-Re (The
Lord of Strength is Re).
During his reign, he completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos from the delta region, restored Theban rule over the whole of
Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan. He then reorganized the
administration of the country, reopened quarries, mines and trade routes and began massive construction projects of a type that had not
been undertaken since the time of the Middle Kingdom. This building program culminated in the construction of the last pyramid built by
native Egyptian rulers. Ahmose's reign laid the foundations for the New Kingdom, under which Egyptian power reached its peak. His reign
is usually dated to about 1550–1525 BC.
For more details on this topic, see Family tree of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt.
Ahmose descended from the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. His grandfather and grandmother, Tao I and Tetisheri, had at least twelve children,
including Tao II and Ahhotep. The brother and sister, according to the tradition of Egyptian queens, married; their children were Kamose,
Ahmose I and several daughters. Ahmose I followed in the tradition of his father and married several of his sisters, making Ahmose-
Nefertari his chief wife. They had several children including daughters Meritamun B, Sitamun A and sons Siamun A, Ahmose-ankh,
Amenhotep I and Ramose A (the "A" and "B" designations after the names are a convention used by Egyptologists to distinguish between
royal children and wives that otherwise have the same name). They may also have been the parents of Mutnofret, who would become the wife
of later successor Thutmose I. Ahmose-ankh was Ahmose's heir apparent, but he preceded his father in death sometime between Ahmose's
17th and 22nd regnal year. Ahmose was succeeded instead by his eldest surviving son, Amenhotep I, with whom he might have shared a
short coregency. He captured the Second cataract fortresses.
There was no distinct break in the line of the royal family between the 17th and 18th dynasties. The historian Manetho, writing much
later during the Ptolemaic dynasty, considered the final expulsion of the Hyksos after nearly a century and the restoration of native
Egyptian rule over the whole country a significant enough event to warrant the start of a new dynasty.
Dates and length of reign
Ahmose's reign can be fairly accurately dated using the Heliacal rise of Sirius in his successor's reign, but because of disputes over
from where the observation was made, he has been assigned a reign from 1570–1546, 1560–1537 and 1551–1527 by various sources.
Manetho gives Ahmose a reign of 25 years and 4 months; this figure is supported by a ‘Year 22’ inscription from his reign at the
stone quarries of Tura. A medical examination of his mummy indicates that he died when he was about thirty-five, supporting a 25-year
reign if he came to the throne at the age of 10. The radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 1570-1544 B.C.E., the mean
point of which is 1557 BC.
Alternative dates for his reign (1194 to 1170 BC) were suggested by David Rohl, but these were rejected by the majority of
Egyptologists even before the radiocarbon date was published in 2010.
The conflict between the local kings of Thebes and the Hyksos king Apepi Awoserre had started during the reign of Tao II Seqenenre and
would be concluded, after almost 30 years of intermittent conflict and war, under the reign of Ahmose I. Tao II was possibly killed in a
battle against the Hyksos, as his much-wounded mummy gruesomely suggests, and his successor Kamose (likely Ahmose's elder brother) is
known to have attacked and raided the lands around the Hyksos capital, Avaris (modern Tell el-Dab'a). Kamose evidently had a short
reign, as his highest attested regnal year is year 3, and was succeeded by Ahmose I. Apepi may have died near the same time. There is
disagreement as to whether two names for Apepi found in the historical record are of different monarchs or multiple names for the same
king. If, indeed, they were of different kings, Apepi Awoserre is thought to have died at around the same time as Kamose and was
succeeded by Apepi II Aqenienre.
Ahmose ascended the throne when he was still a child, so his mother, Ahhotep, reigned as regent until he was of age. Judging by some of
the descriptions of her regal roles while in power, including the general honorific "carer for Egypt", she effectively consolidated the
Theban power base in the years prior to Ahmose assuming full control. If in fact Apepi Aqenienre was a successor to Apepi Awoserre, then
he is thought to have remained bottled up in the delta during Ahhotep's regency, because his name does not appear on any monuments or
objects south of Bubastis....