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Who is Samuel?
        (heard of God), the son of Elkanah and Hannah, was a celebrated Hebrew prophet, and the last of their judges. He is one of the purest and noblest characters in the O.T. history. While he was a child he officiated in some form in the temple, and was favored with revelations of the divine will respecting the family of Eli, the high priest, under whose care and training his mother had placed him. 1 Sam 3:4-14. See Eli. After the death of Eli, Samuel was acknowledged as a prophet, and soon commenced a work of reformation. Idolatry was banished, the worship of the true God was restored, and Samuel was publicly recognized as a judge in Israel. Residing on his patrimonial estate in Ramah, he made annual circuits through the country to administer justice until his infirmities forbade it, and then he deputed his sons to execute this duty. They proved themselves unworthy of the trust, and so general was the dissatisfaction of the people that they determined on a change of government. To this end they applied to Samuel, who, under the divine direction, anointed Saul to be their king, and Samuel resigned his authority to him. 1 Sam 12. After Saul was rejected for his disobedience in the matter of Agag, Samuel was instructed to anoint David as king, after which he returned to Ramah, where he died. 1 Sam 25:1. See Saul. First and Second Books of, are called also the First and Second Books of Kings. They bear Samuel's name, perhaps because he wrote the history of his own times as given in the First Book, and therefore the entire work went under his name. But it is more probable that the name was in consequence of Samuel being the hero of the first part of the history, and that the author belonged to a later period. The Hebrew is singularly clear and pure from Aramaisms. The two books are thus analyzed in Lange's Commentary: 1st part: Samuel's life and work as judge and prophet. 1 Sam. 1:1-7. 2d part: Saul, chs. 8-31:(1) Founding of kingdom, his appointment, chs. 8-15; (2) His fall. Chs. 16-31. 3d part: David. 2 Samuel: 1st part: David king over Judah only, 2 Sam. 1-5:5. 2d part: David king over all Israel. Chs. 5:6-24. These books formed only one in the Hebrew canon. They are the antecedents to the books of the Kings, but are not from the same hand. "In Kings are many express references to the Law; in Samuel, none. In Kings the Exile is often alluded to; it is not so in Samuel. The plans of the two works vary. Samuel has more of a biographical cast; Kings more the character of annals."

Bibliography Information
Schaff, Philip, Dr. "Biblical Definition for 'samuel' in Schaffs Bible Dictionary". - Schaff's

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