Ark of the Covenant - Bible History Online
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Luke 22

1 - Now the feast of unleavened bread, which is called the Passover, was approaching.
2 - The chief priests and the scribes sought how they might put him to death, for they feared the people.
3 - Satan entered into Judas, who was also called Iscariot, who was counted with the twelve.
4 - He went away, and talked with the chief priests and captains about how he might deliver him to them.
5 - They were glad, and agreed to give him money.
6 - He consented, and sought an opportunity to deliver him to them in the absence of the multitude.
7 - The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed.
8 - He sent Peter and John, saying,"Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat."
9 - They said to him, "Where do you want us to prepare?"
10 - He said to them,"Behold, when you have entered into the city, a man carrying a pitcher of water will meet you. Follow him into the house which he enters.
11 - Tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"'
12 - He will show you a large, furnished upper room. Make preparations there."
13 - They went, found things as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover.
14 - When the hour had come, he sat down with the twelve apostles.
15 - He said to them,"I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer,
16 - for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in God's Kingdom."
17 - He received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said,"Take this, and share it among yourselves,
18 - for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until God's Kingdom comes."
19 - He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying,"This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me."
20 - Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying,"This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you.
21 - But behold, the hand of him who betrays me is with me on the table.
22 - The Son of Man indeed goes, as it has been determined, but woe to that man through whom he is betrayed!"
23 - They began to question among themselves, which of them it was who would do this thing.
24 - There arose also a contention among them, which of them was considered to be greatest.
25 - He said to them,"The kings of the nations lord it over them, and those who have authority over them are called 'benefactors.'
26 - But not so with you. But one who is the greater among you, let him become as the younger, and one who is governing, as one who serves.
27 - For who is greater, one who sits at the table, or one who serves? Isn't it he who sits at the table? But I am among you as one who serves.
28 - But you are those who have continued with me in my trials.
29 - I confer on you a kingdom, even as my Father conferred on me,
30 - that you may eat and drink at my table in my Kingdom. You will sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel."
31 - The Lord said,"Simon, Simon, behold, Satan asked to have all of you, that he might sift you as wheat,
32 - but I prayed for you, that your faith wouldn't fail. You, when once you have turned again, establish your brothers."
33 - He said to him, "Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death!"
34 - He said,"I tell you, Peter, the rooster will by no means crow today until you deny that you know me three times."
35 - He said to them,"When I sent you out without purse, and wallet, and shoes, did you lack anything?"They said, "Nothing."
36 - Then he said to them,"But now, whoever has a purse, let him take it, and likewise a wallet. Whoever has none, let him sell his cloak, and buy a sword.
37 - For I tell you that this which is written must still be fulfilled in me: 'He was counted with transgressors.'Isaiah 53:12For that which concerns me has an end."
38 - They said, "Lord, behold, here are two swords."He said to them,"That is enough."
39 - He came out, and went, as his custom was, to the Mount of Olives. His disciples also followed him.
40 - When he was at the place, he said to them,"Pray that you don't enter into temptation."
41 - He was withdrawn from them about a stone's throw, and he knelt down and prayed,
42 - saying,"Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done."
43 - An angel from heaven appeared to him, strengthening him.
44 - Being in agony he prayed more earnestly. His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down on the ground.
45 - When he rose up from his prayer, he came to the disciples, and found them sleeping because of grief,
46 - and said to them,"Why do you sleep? Rise and pray that you may not enter into temptation."
47 - While he was still speaking, behold, a multitude, and he who was called Judas, one of the twelve, was leading them. He came near to Jesus to kiss him.
48 - But Jesus said to him,"Judas, do you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?"
49 - When those who were around him saw what was about to happen, they said to him, "Lord, shall we strike with the sword?"
50 - A certain one of them struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear.
51 - But Jesus answered,"Let me at least do this"-and he touched his ear, and healed him.
52 - Jesus said to the chief priests, captains of the temple, and elders, who had come against him,"Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs?
53 - When I was with you in the temple daily, you didn't stretch out your hands against me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness."
54 - They seized him, and led him away, and brought him into the high priest's house. But Peter followed from a distance.
55 - When they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard, and had sat down together, Peter sat among them.
56 - A certain servant girl saw him as he sat in the light, and looking intently at him, said, "This man also was with him."
57 - He denied Jesus, saying, "Woman, I don't know him."
58 - After a little while someone else saw him, and said, "You also are one of them!"But Peter answered, "Man, I am not!"
59 - After about one hour passed, another confidently affirmed, saying, "Truly this man also was with him, for he is a Galilean!"
60 - But Peter said, "Man, I don't know what you are talking about!" Immediately, while he was still speaking, a rooster crowed.
61 - The Lord turned, and looked at Peter. Then Peter remembered the Lord's word, how he said to him,"Before the rooster crows you will deny me three times."
62 - He went out, and wept bitterly.
63 - The men who held Jesus mocked him and beat him.
64 - Having blindfolded him, they struck him on the face and asked him, "Prophesy! Who is the one who struck you?"
65 - They spoke many other things against him, insulting him.
66 - As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying,
67 - "If you are the Christ, tell us."But he said to them,"If I tell you, you won't believe,
68 - and if I ask, you will in no way answer me or let me go.
69 - From now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God."
70 - They all said, "Are you then the Son of God?"He said to them,"You say it, because I am."
71 - They said, "Why do we need any more witness? For we ourselves have heard from his own mouth!"
Luke Images and Notes

The Book of Luke

Luke 1:1-4 - Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a declaration of those things which are most surely believed among us, Even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were eyewitnesses, and ministers of the word; It seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus, That thou mightest know the certainty of those things, wherein thou hast been instructed.

Luke 2:49 - And he said unto them, How is it that ye sought me? wist ye not that I must be about my Father's business?

Luke 19:42 - Saying, If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things [which belong] unto thy peace! but now they are hid from thine eyes.

Luke in The New Testament - A Brief Overview

Luke by El Greco 1605
Painting of St. Luke by El Greco - 1605

Introduction to The Gospel of Luke

The Word Gospel. The third book of the English Bible that most of us read from is the Gospel of Luke. Luke is the third of the four gospel writings, yet there is only one gospel about Jesus Christ and there are four different writers: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. The word "Gospel" means "good news", and the good news is about Jesus Christ dying on the cross and then 3 days later conquering death and rising from the dead, offering salvation to all mankind, this is the Gospel.

Summary of The Book of Luke

Brief Summary. Jesus was the most perfect man of all men, the perfect Son of God. Completely devoted to everyone, especially the weak. He was the most humble man that ever lived, and not only a servant, but the lowest slave. He completely put others first before He thought of Himself, the Son of man.

Purpose. Luke seems to portray Jesus as an ideal man, very appealing to the Greek culture which exalted reason, philosophy, the human mind, and beauty. Luke's writings were orderly and classical. he mentions that Jesus spent the whole night in prayer before He chose His apostles (Luke 6:12-16), unlike the other Gospel accounts. There are also statements in Luke that speak of His purity more clearly, like when the centurion said "certainly this was a righteous man" (Luke 23:47). The other Gospel accounts seem to have a different focus in their portrayal of Christ. Luke also seems to reveal Christianity as a religion for all mankind and not just the Jews. For example, the lineage of Jesus is traced past Abraham all the way back to Adam the first man. Jesus is seen in Luke as a friend of sinners and a savior to anyone who would believe in Him. When considering both of Luke's works it is clear that he traces the origin, heart, and description of the Christian movement from Bethlehem to Jerusalem, to Antioch, to Macedonia, to Achaia, to Ephesus, and finally to Rome, the capital of the world. He examined eyewitnesses, knew personally and had close contact with the main followers of Christ like Mark and James, the brother of the Lord, Paul. Silas (a member of the Jerusalem Church) and no doubt many others.

Audience. Luke addressed his account of the life of Christ and the Acts of the Apostles to a man named Theophilus, yet it possesses a style that would appeal to all intelligent gentiles and would certain appeal to any believer. Theophilus could have been a gentile convert to Christianity who desired to know more of the facts surrounding the life of Jesus Christ, possibly a wealthy contributor to Christianity, no one can say for certain. The name Theophilus means "lover of God" and has been supposed by many to be a euphemism for all lovers of God in Christ.

Authorship. The gospel of Luke does not proclaim who the author is within the document, yet the historical information we have from the first two centuries of the Christian Era was unanimous in concluding that the writer was Luke. Luke also wrote the Acts of the Apostles (Acts 1:1) as a continuing document, from the birth of John the Baptist and Jesus to Paul's imprisonment and ministry in Rome.

Date. Since the Book of Acts was written while Paul was in Rome, the date of Acts would be around 62 AD, and since the Gospel of Luke was mentioned as a "former 'treatise," Luke must have been written a few years earlier.

Place. It cannot be determined with certainty where the Gospel of Luke was written. Some of the early Church writers said it was written in Achaia. Many think Acts was most likely written in Rome and therefore Luke must have also. One common speculation is that the Gospel of Luke was written in Caesarea Maritima while Paul was in prison there a couple years before his journey to Rome.

The Man Luke. Luke was a gentile (non-Jew) and was not mentioned during the actual life of Jesus, but afterward he became a Christian under the influence of Paul the Apostle. Luke was described by Paul in his letter to the Church in Colossae as "the beloved physician" (Colossians 4:14). Luke was also mentioned as a companion of Paul on his missionary journeys, and on his third and last missionary journey he said that "only Luke is with me" (2 Timothy 4:11). Luke must have been an amazing man because he claims in the beginning of his account of the life of Christ that he "investigated everything carefully" (Luke 1 :1- 4). This would mean that he would have spoken with eyewitnesses to the miracles and events surround the ministry of Jesus. He was clearly persuaded by the facts that he was told and became a devoted follower of Christ and a companion of Paul until the end. There can be no doubt that Luke was a gentile believer, even his name "Luke" is a gentiloe name. Also in Colossians 4 it mentions the names Epaphras, Demas and Luke in contrast with those "of the circumcision." It is interesting to note that early Church leaders Irenaeus, Tertullian, Origen, and Eusebius mentioned in their writings that Luke was influenced by Paul when he wrote the third Gospel account.

Language. Luke was written in Greek, he was a gentile believer and uses a style similar to other important Greek documents. He uses a popular, non-literary Greek style, omitting Semitic and Latin "barbarisms"; yet, he manifests a rich vocabulary and a high degree of literary artistry, as seen in his ability to sketch the character of an individual in a few graphic strokes of the pen. A noted French philosopher and critic of the Bible called the book of Luke "the most beautiful book ever written."

Historical Trustworthiness. Throughout the history of the Church and especially during the 1800's their has been many targeted attacks on the historical trustworthiness of Luke's writings. As the science of archaeology increased technologically and archaeological discoveries from the first century were being uncovered, Luke's writings were emerged as extremely accurate. Luke has been heralded by many scholars as one of the ablest and most accurate historians of the ancient world.

Outline of the Book of Luke

His Birth, Childhood, Early Ministry - Chapters 1:1-4:13
His Ministry in Galilee - Chapters 4:14-9:50
His Journey to Jerusalem, Ministry - Chapters 9:51-21:38
His Rejection and Death - Chapters 22:1-23:56
His Resurrection and Ascension - Chapter 24:1-53

Jesus written in Hebrew
The Name Jesus In Ancient Hebrew Text
"Yeshua" in First Century Hebrew Text. This is how the name "Jesus" would have been written in ancient Hebrew documents. The four letters or consonants from right to left are Yod, Shin, Vav, Ayin (Y, SH, OO, A). Jesus is the Greek name for the Hebrew name Joshua or Y'shua which means "The LORD or Yahweh is Salvation".

Luke Resources

Outline of the Life of Jesus in Harmony
Simple Map of First Century Israel
Topographical Map of First Century Israel
Map of the Ministry of Jesus
Map of the Roads in Ancient Israel
Map of the Roman Empire