Ga 1:1-24. SUPERSCRIPTION. GREETINGS. THE CAUSE OF HIS WRITING IS THEIR SPEEDY FALLING AWAY FROM THE GOSPEL HE TAUGHT. DEFENSE OF HIS TEACHING: HIS APOSTOLIC CALL INDEPENDENT OF MAN.
Judaizing teachers had persuaded the Galatians that Paul had taught them the new religion imperfectly, and at second hand; that the founder of their church himself possessed only a deputed commission, the seal of truth and authority being in the apostles at Jerusalem: moreover, that whatever he might profess among them, he had himself at other times, and in other places, given way to the doctrine of circumcision. To refute this, he appeals to the history of his conversion, and to the manner of his conferring with the apostles when he met them at Jerusalem; that so far was his doctrine from being derived from them, or they from exercising any superiority over him, that they had simply assented to what he had already preached among the Gentiles, which preaching was communicated, not by them to him, but by himself to them [PALEY]. Such an apologetic Epistle could not be a later forgery, the objections which it meets only coming out incidentally, not being obtruded as they would be by a forger; and also being such as could only arise in the earliest age of the Church, when Jerusalem and Judaism still held a prominent place.
1. apostle--in the earliest Epistles, the two to the
Thessalonians, through humility, he uses no title of authority; but
associates with him "Silvanus and Timotheus"; yet here, though
are with him, he does not name them but puts his own name and
apostleship prominent: evidently because his apostolic commission needs
now to be vindicated against deniers of it.
of--Greek, "from." Expressing the origin from which his mission came, "not from men," but from Christ and the Father (understood) as the source. "By" expresses the immediate operating agent in the call. Not only was the call from God as its ultimate source, but by Christ and the Father as the immediate agent in calling him (Ac 22:15; 26:16-18). The laying on of Ananias' hands (Ac 9:17) is no objection to this; for that was but a sign of the fact, not an assisting cause. So the Holy Ghost calls him specially (Ac 13:2, 3); he was an apostle before this special mission.
man--singular; to mark the contrast to "Jesus Christ." The opposition between "Christ" and "man," and His name being put in closest connection with God the Father, imply His Godhead.
raised him from the dead--implying that, though he had not seen Him in His humiliation as the other apostles (which was made an objection against him), he had seen and been constituted an apostle by Him in His resurrection power (Mt 28:18; Ro 1:4, 5). Compare as to the ascension, the consequence of the resurrection, and the cause of His giving "apostles," Eph 4:11. He rose again, too, for our justification (Ro 4:25); thus Paul prepares the way for the prominent subject of the Epistle, justification in Christ, not by the law.
The Book of Galatians
Galatians 1:11-12 - But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel which was preached of me is not after man. For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught [it], but by the revelation of Jesus Christ.
Galatians 4:4 - But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law,
Galatians 5:22-23 - But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.
Galatians in The New Testament - A Brief Overview
Introduction to The Book of Galatians
Brief Summary. Paul instructs the churches that he established in Galatia. He defends his apostleship against the Judaizers who wanted to mix Christianity with the Law of Moses. Paul says that salvation is by grace and not by law.
Summary of The Book of Galatians
Purpose. Paul was so well received by the Galatians that they even looked upon him as an angel or God himself (Galatians 4:14). The churches that he established had become strong churches, yet they were severely affected by the false teaching of the Judaizers. Paul deals with their false doctrines and their attacks at his apostleship, and shows clearly how Christianity cannot be mingled with Jewish laws and circumcision. He reminds them that his authority and ministry was not passed on through the other apostles, but came directly through Jesus Christ. Regarding Christianity he uses sound doctrine, Scripture, and allegory to show how Christianity is greater than the law. The true purpose of the law was to point to Jesus Christ, and the gospel does not see any difference between the Jew, the Greek, the free man, the slave, nor male nor female. Paul's message in the book of Galatians regarding Christianity and its relationship to the law of Moses is theologically brilliant, and some have referred to it as the Christian Declaration of Independence.
Audience. Scholars agree that paul was writing to the churches in Galatia which he established on his first missionary journey.
Authorship. Paul the Apostle was the author of the book of Galatians. Scholars agree that Paul was the author of the epistle to the Galatians. Paul refers to his own name as "Paul" twice in Galatians (Galatians 1:1 and 5:2). The second reference is very conclusive that it was Paul writing. There were several references to the life of Paul which can easily be harmonized with the Book of Acts.
Date. it is very difficult to be certain about the date of the epistle to the Galatians. Most scholars give it a 50 or 55 AD date.
Place Written. It is also difficult to be certain about the location where Paul wrote his epistle to the Galatians. Most likely it was written from either Syrian Antioch before the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15) or it could have been written from Ephesus on Paul's second or third missionary journey.
Outline of the Book of Galatians
Paul's Message of the Gospel - Chapter 1:1-10
Paul Defends Justification by Faith - Chapters 1:11-2:21
Paul Explains Justification by Faith - Chapters 3:1-4:31
Paul Explains Applying Justification by Faith 5:1-6:18
The Name Jesus In Ancient Hebrew Text
"Yeshua" in First Century Hebrew Text. This is how the name "Jesus" would have been written in ancient Hebrew documents. The four letters or consonants from right to left are Yod, Shin, Vav, Ayin (Y, SH, OO, A). Jesus is the Greek name for the Hebrew name Joshua or Y'shua which means "The LORD or Yahweh is Salvation".
Galatians Maps and Resources
Map of the Roman Empire (14 A.D.) - This map reveals the Roman Empire during the time shortly after the birth of Jesus, in 14 AD at the time of the death of Augustus. The order which prevailed in this extensive empire, the good military roads, and the use of Koine Greek as the general language of culture throughout the area were among the factors which multiplied the rapid spread of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. (Color Map)
Map of Paul's First Missionary Journey (48 A.D.) - This map reveals the areas in Asia Minor where Paul visited in his first missionary journey. Around 48 AD, in the springtime, Paul and his companions Barnabas and Mark were sent on a mission from the church in Antioch. This would be the first of Paul's Missionary Journey's. (Color Map)
Map of Paul's Second Missionary Journey (51 A.D.) - This map reveals the areas in Asia and Greece where Paul visited in his second missionary journey. Paul re-visits a couple cities in Asia, one of which was Lystra where he was stoned and left for dead a few years earlier. He later has a vision that leads him over to Greece and Paul and his companions travel and minister in various cities in Greece (Philippi, Thessalonica, Berea, Athens and Corinth. Later Paul returns to Ephesus and finally to Caesarea and Antioch. (Color Map)
Map of Paul's Third Missionary Journey (54 A.D.) - This map reveals the areas in Asia and Greece where Paul visited in his third missionary journey. On Paul's third missionary journey he returned to the cities he had first visited on his first missionary journey. During this time he decided to remain in Ephesus for about 3 years, and this city was the main focus of his activities and an important Christian community (Acts 19). (Color Map)
Map of the New Testament World - This map reveals the "Nations" within the ancient world during the first century A.D., the time of the New Testament. The map includes the areas of Israel, Asia, Greece, and Italy. (Color Map)
Map of New Testament Asia - This map shows the cities within
Asia Minor during the first century A.D., the time of the New
Testament. The map includes the principal cities of Asia
including Tarsus, Ephesus, and Colossae, and provinces like
Galatia and Pamphilia. (Color Map)