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Exodus 12:29 Now it came about at midnight that the LORD struck all the first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the first-born of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the first-born of cattle.

< Exodus 12:28
Exodus 12:30 >

      29. at midnight the Lord smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt--At the moment when the Israelites were observing the newly instituted feast in the singular manner described, the threatened calamity overtook the Egyptians. It is more easy to imagine than describe the confusion and terror of that people suddenly roused from sleep and enveloped in darkness--none could assist their neighbors when the groans of the dying and the wild shrieks of mourners were heard everywhere around. The hope of every family was destroyed at a stroke. This judgment, terrible though it was, evinced the equity of divine retribution. For eighty years the Egyptians had caused the male children of the Israelites to be cast into the river [Ex 1:16], and now all their own first-born fell under the stroke of the destroying angel. They were made, in the justice of God, to feel something of what they had made His people feel. Many a time have the hands of sinners made the snares in which they have themselves been entangled, and fallen into the pit which they have dug for the righteous [Pr 28:10]. "Verily there is a God that judgeth in the earth" [Ps 58:11].


Questions Related to this Verse

Where in Scripture does it mention The institution of the Passover?

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Exodus 12 Images and Notes

Brief Summary: The LORD establishes the Passover and the feast of unleavened bread, unblemished lambs are slain, Israelites are spared because of the blood on the doorposts, The firstborn of all Egyptians are slain, Israel is thrust out of Egypt after 430 years, no bone of the paschal lamb is to be broken.

1 The beginning of the year is changed
3 The Passover is instituted
11 The rite of the Passover
15 The seven days of unleavened bread
29 The firstborn are slain
31 The Israelites are driven out of the land
37 They come to Succoth
43 The ordinance of the Passover

Painting of Ancient Egypt Pyramids and Sphinx by Roberts
Painting of Ancient Egyptian Landmarks by Roberts

Important Topics for Bible Study
Verse- Topic
1-2- The Month That They Left Egypt Became The First Month Of The Year
3 - God Tells Them To Choose An Unblemished Lamb For The Passover
4- They Learn How To Eat The Passover
5- The Passover Lamb Is Described
6- The Manner Of Sprinkling The Blood Is Described
7- The Time Of Killing The Passover Lamb Is Described
8-11- The Time They Were To Eat The Passover Lamb And How They Were To Eat Of It
12- The Lord's Purpose To Smite The Firstborn
13- How They Were To Apply The Blood Upon The Doors
15- The Seven Days Of Unleavened Bread And How They Were To Keep It
21-24- Moses Teaches The Elders For Their Current And Future Safety
26-27- The Children Are Instructed
29- The Firstborn Of All Egypt Are Slain
30- There Is A Great Cry In The Land Of Egypt
31- Pharaoh Commands Israel To Go
33- The Egyptians Force Them To Go
34- The Israelites Depart In Haste
35-36- The Israelites Spoil The Egyptians
37- The Israelites Are Numbered
39- The Israelites Baked Unleavened Bread
40- The Length Of Time The Israelites Were In Egypt Is Recorded
41- The Day And Time Of Israel's Deliverance
43-49- Who Is Allowed To Partake Of The Passover
50- The Children Of Israel Did As The Lord Commanded

Quick Reference Map
Map of the Nile River
Map of the Nile River and Egypt (Click to Enlarge)

Painting of the Ancient Nile River by Roberts
Painting of the Ancient Nile River by Roberts

Ancient Customs
without blemish
the tenth day of the month
the fourteenth day of the same month
assembly of Israel
congregation of Israel
the blood
side posts
upper door post of the houses
eating the roasted flesh
all the gods of Egypt
a token
unleavened bread
cut off from Israel
holy convocation
elders of Israel
kill the passover
bowed the head and worshipped
spoiled the Egyptians
armies of Israel

Ancient People
God, Moses, Pharaoh, Aaron
children of Israel
six hundred thousand on foot that were men

the land of Goshen

Quick Reference Maps

The Exodus of the Hebrews

Mount Horeb

The Red Sea

The Old Testament


Exodus Resources

Moses and the Exodus
The Giving of the Law
The Tabernacle
The Wilderness Wanderings