International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
fash'-un (mishpaT; schema, the make, pattern, shape, manner or appearance of a thing (from Latin faction-em, "a making," through Old French fatson, fachon)): In the Old Testament the noun "fashion" represents 3 Hebrew words:
(1) MishpaT = literally, "judgment," hence, judicial sentence, right, custom, manner; usually translated "judgment" (very frequent), but also a few times "sentence," "cause," "charge," and more frequently "manner" (nearly 40 times in the King James Version). In 3 passages it is translated "fashion," in the sense of style, shape, make, in each case of a building or part of a building (Ex 26:30; 1 Ki 6:38; Ezek 42:11).
(2) Tekhunah = literally, "arrangement," "adjustment" (compare takhan, "to set right," "adjust," from kun, hekhin, "to set up," "establish"); Ezek 43:11, "the form of the house, and the fashion thereof." A cognate word in the preceding verse is translated "pattern" (the Revised Version, margin "sum").
(3) Demuth = "resemblance" (from damah, "to be similar"), generally translated "likeness" in English Versions of the Bible, but "fashion" in 2 Ki 16:10, where it means pattern or model. The verb "to fashion" stands for (a) yatsar, "to form," "fashion" (Ps 33:15; 139:16 the King James Version; Isa 22:11 the King James Version; Isa 44:12; 45:9); (b) `asah, "to work," "make," "form" (Job 10:8); (c) kun, "to set up," "establish," "prepare" (Job 31:15; Ps 119:73; Ezek 16:7); (d) tsur, "to bind up together," "compress" (Ex 32:4, of Aaron fashioning the golden calf out of the golden rings).
In the New Testament, the noun represents 5 Greek words:
(1) Of these, the most interesting is schema, "figure," "shape," "fashion" (from schein, aorist of echein, "to have," compare Latin habitus, from habeo, "I have"). Schema denotes a transient, external semblance or fashion, and so it may be distinguished from its synonym morphe, which denotes the essential intrinsic form of a thing, expressing its real nature. (See Lightfoot, Detached Note on Phil 2; Trench, New Testament Syn., 252 ff; Gifford, Incarnation, 22 ff. The distinction is rejected by Meyer, on Rom 12:2, and by others.) In the New Testament, the noun schema occurs but twice: 1 Cor 7:31, "The fashion of this world passeth away," where there seems to be an allusion to theatrical scenes, which are in their very nature transitory (compare 2 Macc 4:13); and Phil 2:8, "being found in fashion as a man," i.e. having the outward figure and bearing of a man, such marks of human nature as strike the senses (contrast morphe Theou, "form of God," Phil 2:6, and morphe doulou, "form of servant," 2:7, which describe Christ's real inner nature). The word schema is found in compound verbs in the following passages: Rom 12:2, "Be not fashioned (sunschematizesthe) according to this world: but be ye transformed (metamorphousthe) by the renewing of your mind" (so the Revised Version (British and American)), paraphrased by Sanday and Headlam, "Do not adopt the external and fleeting fashion of this world, but be ye transformed in your inmost nature" (Comm. in the place cited.); 2 Cor 11:13 f, metaschematizomai, the King James Version "transformed," better the Revised Version (British and American) "fashioned," the reference being to "the fictitious, illusory transformation whereby evil assumes the mask of good" (Lightfoot, Commentary on Phil, 131); 1 Pet 1:14, "not fashioning yourselves according to your former lusts," paraphrased by Lightfoot, "not falling in with the capricious guidance of the passions" (same place) . In Phil 3:21, the adjective summorphos is translated "fashioned" in the King James Version, but better "conformed" as in Revised Version (British and American).
(2) Eioos, eidos, literally, "thing seen," "external appearance," "shape," is translated "fashion" in Lk 9:29, of the glorified appearance of the transfigured Christ.
(3) prosopon, literally, "face," hence, look, appearance, Jas 1:11, "The grace of the fashion of it perisheth."
(4) tupos, type, model, translated "fashion" in Acts 7:44 the King James Version (the Revised Version (British and American) "figure"), the Greek word being taken from the Septuagint of the quoted passage, Ex 25:40. The same phrase, kata ton tupon, in the parallel passage, Heb 8:5, is translated "according to the pattern."
(5) In one instance the phrase "on this fashion," "in this manner," represents the Greek adverb houtos, "thus" (Mk 2:12).
D. Miall Edwards
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. "Definition for 'fashion'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". bible-history.com - ISBE
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