(1.) Formerly Crenides, "the fountain," the capital of the
province of Macedonia. It stood near the head of the Sea, about
8 miles north-west of Kavalla. It is now a ruined village,
called Philibedjik. Philip of Macedonia fortified the old
Thracian town of Crenides, and called it after his own name
Philippi (B.C. 359-336). In the time of the Emperor Augustus
this city became a Roman colony, i.e., a military settlement of
Roman soldiers, there planted for the purpose of controlling the
district recently conquered. It was a "miniature Rome," under
the municipal law of Rome, and governed by military officers,
called duumviri, who were appointed directly from Rome. Having
been providentially guided thither, here Paul and his companion
Silas preached the gospel and formed the first church in Europe.
(See LYDIA T0002339.) This success stirred up the enmity of the
people, and they were "shamefully entreated" (Acts 16:9-40; 1
Thess. 2:2). Paul and Silas at length left this city and
proceeded to Amphipolis (q.v.).

(2.) When Philip the tetrarch, the son of Herod, succeeded to
the government of the northern portion of his kingdom, he
enlarged the city of Paneas, and called it Caesarea, in honour
of the emperor. But in order to distinguish it from the Caesarea
on the sea coast, he added to it subsequently his own name, and
called it Caesarea-Philippi (q.v.).