Calf

Calves were commonly made use of in sacrifices, and are
therefore frequently mentioned in Scripture. The "fatted calf"
was regarded as the choicest of animal food; it was frequently
also offered as a special sacrifice (1 Sam. 28:24; Amos 6:4;
Luke 15:23). The words used in Jer. 34:18, 19, "cut the calf in
twain," allude to the custom of dividing a sacrifice into two
parts, between which the parties ratifying a covenant passed
(Gen. 15:9, 10, 17, 18). The sacrifice of the lips, i.e.,
priase, is called "the calves of our lips" (Hos. 14:2, R.V., "as
bullocks the offering of our lips." Compare Heb. 13:15; Ps. 116:7;
Jer. 33:11).

The golden calf which Aaron made (Ex. 32:4) was probably a
copy of the god Moloch rather than of the god Apis, the sacred
ox or calf of Egypt. The Jews showed all through their history a
tendency toward the Babylonian and Canaanite idolatry rather
than toward that of Egypt.

Ages after this, Jeroboam, king of Israel, set up two idol
calves, one at Dan, and the other at Bethel, that he might thus
prevent the ten tribes from resorting to Jerusalem for worship
(1 Kings 12:28). These calves continued to be a snare to the
people till the time of their captivity. The calf at Dan was
carried away in the reign of Pekah by Tiglath-pileser, and that
at Bethel ten years later, in the reign of Hoshea, by
Shalmaneser (2 Kings 15:29; 17:33). This sin of Jeroboam is
almost always mentioned along with his name (2 Kings 15:28
etc.).