a treaty between nations, or between individuals, for their
mutual advantage.

Abraham formed an alliance with some of the Canaanite
princes (Gen. 14:13), also with Abimelech (21:22-32). Joshua and
the elders of Israel entered into an alliance with the
Gibeonites (Josh. 9:3-27). When the Israelites entered Israel
they were forbidden to enter into alliances with the inhabitants
of the country (Lev. 18:3, 4; 20:22, 23).

Solomon formed a league with Hiram (1 Kings 5:12). This
"brotherly covenant" is referred to 250 years afterwards (Amos
1:9). He also appears to have entered into an alliance with
Pharaoh (1 Kings 10:28, 29).

In the subsequent history of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel
various alliances were formed between them and also with
neighbouring nations at different times.

From patriarchal times a covenant of alliance was sealed by
the blood of some sacrificial victim. The animal sacrificed was
cut in two (except birds), and between these two parts the
persons contracting the alliance passed (Gen. 15:10). There are
frequent allusions to this practice (Jer. 34:18). Such alliances
were called "covenants of salt" (Num. 18:19; 2 Chr. 13:5), salt
being the symbol of perpetuity. A pillar was set up as a
memorial of the alliance between Laban and Jacob (Gen. 31:52).
The Jews throughout their whole history attached great
importance to fidelity to their engagements. Divine wrath fell
upon the violators of them (Josh. 9:18; 2 Sam. 21:1, 2; Ezek.