Judea under a Roman Procurator.
The Emperor of Rome, Augustus Caesar, made Philip, Herod the Great's youngest son the Tetrarch of Ituraea and the region of Trachonitus. The districts in these regions were filled with a mixed population of Gentiles, predominantly Syrians and Greeks. This created a peaceful rule which was a huge contrast to that of his half-brothers. The only good quality that he inherited from his father Herod the great was the passion for building projects. The Bible mentions two of the cities that Philip built: Caesarea Philippi, which is built in honor of the Emperor Augustus, and Bethsaida which was built in honor of Augustus' daughter Julius. It is interesting to note that the apostle Philip was a citizen of Bethsaida, and his Greek name was a giveaway that his parents were Jews who were heavily influenced by Hellenism within this province. This could also be the reason why "certain Greeks" who were in Jerusalem during the last Passover of our Lord Jesus Christ, approached Philip saying "Sir, we would see Jesus." It is also interesting that Jesus took refuge within Philips territory after the Pharisees had "taken counsel with the Herodian's about how they were going to destroy him." (Mark 3:6)
Augustus Caesar granted Herod's son Antipas rule over a very beautiful and fertile region known as Galilee, as well as the district of Perea on the other side of the Jordan River (Transjordan). These two districts are actually separated by a district called Decapolis, a predominantly Hellenistic area. Antipas was like his father in that he was very ambitious, and crafty, and Jesus referred to him as "that fox". As a young man he lived in Rome, and although he was not very popular with Augustus, he obtained favor and friendship with Tiberius. When Tiberius became Emperor in 14 A.D. Antipas obtained many favors, and in return he became like a spy for Tiberius and snitched on the conduct of various Roman officials in the eastern portion of the empire. Antipas was also passionate about building, like his father, he enlarged the fortress of Machaerus on the east side of the Dead Sea, and created a palace from a prison. He also rebuilt the ruined Sepphoris, which was actually at one time the capital of Galilee. When he was finished the eminent historian Josephus referred to it as "the ornament of all Galilee." Antipas went further and beautified the western side of the Sea of Galilee building a new capital, naming it Tiberias. He built a royal palace there over an ancient cemetery. The Jews of course considered it a place of uncleanness, and in order to populate it Antipas had to bribe foreigners, and all sorts of people to make their home there. It was not long before it became a center of Hellenism. Herod Antipas was denounced by John the Baptist because he had committed adultery with his half-brothers wife Herodias. Her daughter danced before Antipas and he offered her anything up to half of his kingdom in return. She requested the head of John the Baptist, which he regretfully provided on a dish to Herodias. Antipas and Herodias were banished to Gaul (France) in 39 AD.
Claudius gave to Lysanius the kingdom and tetrarchy of Abilene.
There were three legions stationed at the Roman province of Syria to protect the eastern border of the Roman Empire.
Archelaus was given the Tetrarchy of Judea but when he was banished Judea became under Roman administration under a prefect, Pontius Pilate, who governed from 26-36 AD. Judea therefore was not an imperial or senatorial province but was a "satellite of Syria", and the governor of Syria collected taxes from Syria and Judea. The bulk of Roman soldiers in the area were stationed at Caesarea, yet on Passover a cohort of 500 soldiers would be stationed at the Antonia Fortress in Jerusalem, overlooking the Temple grounds.
The region of Galilee.
The region of Samaria.