Herod the Governor
Governor of Galilee (47-37 B.C.)
At around 25 years old Herod became governor of Galilee. It wasn't long before
the Galilean Jews and the Roman officials in Syria began to admire this young
man. Herod was quick to capture and execute the outlaw Ezekias and most of his
followers. At one point many people came to Hyrcanus and tried to convince him
that Herod was getting too powerful and that he had violated Jewish laws when he
executed Ezekias and his followers. They recommended that Herod stand trial
before the Sanhedrin.
Around 47 B.C. Hyrcanus was persuaded and ordered Herod to be brought to
trial. Herod got the message and came to the trial but when he showed up he
appeared as a king dressed in purple and attended by his bodyguard. Sextus
Caesar, the governor of Syria, gave the orders to Hyrcanus that Herod should be
acquitted or their would be great consequences.
When Herod was released he came to Damascus to join up with Sextus Caesar.
Sextus saw Herod as a remarkable man with much popularity and appointed him as
governor of Coele-Syria, and Herod became more and more familiar with Roman laws
and Customs, especially when dealing with affairs in Syria.
Herod was very angry that Hyrcanus had called him to trial and to avenge
himself he marched against Jerusalem, but his father and his brother both
persuaded him to refrain from violence.
Caecilius Bassus, an enemy of Julius Caesar and friend of Pompey, murdered
Sextus Caesar and became the new leader of Syria. Antipater, who was a friend of
Julius Caesar, sent his troops against Bassus with his two sons leading them.
This small War lasted for about three years and after Caesar was assassinated by
Cassius, Brutus, and their followers in March of 44 B.C., Cassius came to Syria
and defeated Bassus and he became the new leader of Syria.
Because Cassius required heavy taxes Antipater chose Herod, Phasael, and
Malichus to do the collecting. It wasn't long before Herod became renowned for
his collecting of taxes. Cassius was very pleased with Herod and not only
appointed him as governor of Coele-Syria (just as he had been under Sextus) but
also swore to make him king of Judea after the war that he and Brutus were
fighting against Caesar and Antony.
The Herodians were becoming noticeably powerful because of the Romans and
Malichus, a man whose life Antipater had once saved, bribed a servant to poison
Antipater (43 B.C.). Herod sought revenge and killed Malichus with the sword.
Once Cassius had left Syria and joined up with Brutus in their campaign
against Octavius and Antony, Judea was in turmoil again because of Hyrcanus.
With some difficulty Herod stopped the revolt and before long another one broke
out. Ptolemy, the ruler of the Itureans, gave protection to Antigonus, the son
of Aristobulus. In 42 B.C. Herod defeated them and was congratulated by Hyrcanus
and the people.
During this period Herod had a wife whose name was Doris. They had a son
together whom they named Antipater, after his grandfather. Herod also became
betrothed to Mariamne, the granddaughter of Hyrcanus II and the daughter of
Aristobulus' son, Alexander. This would mean that she was a niece of Antigonus,
who was the arch-rival of Herod.
By marrying Mariamne Herod would be marrying into the royal house of the
Hasmoneans and would become the natural Hasmonean heir, and would cause him to
win acceptance in Judean circles.
By 42 B.C. Marc Antony had defeated Cassius at Philippi and then advanced to
Bithynia of Asia minor. When he arrived he was met by several Jewish leaders who
brought accusations against Herod and Phasael (the governor of Jerusalem),
saying that they were usurping their power and undermining Hyrcanus.
When Herod was questioned the gave a good defense against the accusations and
the charges were dropped.
In the autumn of 41 B.C., when Marc Antony had gone to Antioch, the Jewish
leaders came and spoke the same accusations against Herod and Phasael. But this
time Hyrcanus was there and Marc Antony came to him personally and asked him who
would be the best qualified ruler. Hyrcanus stated that he was in favor of Herod
and Phasael. Marc Antony therefore confirmed their authority and appointed them
as tetrarchs of Judea.
"in the days of Herod the king" -
Herod the Great - A Brief Overview
Click on the Picture
Herod I (the Great) was son of Antipater and made king by the Romans in 40
B.C. He managed to keep hold of his throne in the face of the many changes in
the government at Rome.
His kingdom comprised Judea, Samaria, Galilee, Idumea, Batanea, and Peraea,
which was approximately the same size as the kingdom of David and Solomon.
Although Herod had exceptional leadership skills, he was extremely disliked by
the Jews. His attitude toward the Maccabean dynasty, to which he was related by
marriage, along with his insolence and cruelty, angered them all the more. He
even had his brother-in-law and several of his wives and sons executed.
He forced heavy taxes and brutally repressed any rebellions. But it was by his
policy of Hellenistic culture that he greatly wounded the Jews. The construction
of a race-course, a theater, and an amphitheater in Jerusalem, his wide support
of the emperor cult in the East, and the construction of pagan temples in
foreign cities at his own expense could not be forgiven, even though he restored
and reconstructed the Temple of Jerusalem and continually pleaded the cause of
the Jews of the Diaspora to the emperor to his own gains.
There was no close tie between the king and his people; he remained an Edomite
and a friend of Rome, only holding on to his power by the use of a merciless
military force. This is the same Herod the Great who massacred the children of
Bethlehem (Matt. 2).
Herod suddenly died in 4 B.C.
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Bibliography on Herod the
The Many Faces of Herod the Great
by Marshak, 448 Pages, Pub. 2014
The True Herod
by Vermes, 192 Pages, Pub. 2014