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Map of the Territory of the Ancient Amalekites
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Map of the Territory of the Ancient Amalekites

Throughout Biblical history the Amalekites were bitter enemies of the Israelites. They were the first adversaries that the Israelites encountered after crossing the Red Sea. According to archaeology the Amalekites disappeared from history after the northern kingdom of Judah conquered the Negev territory in the 10th century B.C.

Numbers 13:29 - The Amalekites dwell in the land of the south: and the Hittites, and the Jebusites, and the Amorites, dwell in the mountains: and the Canaanites dwell by the sea, and by the coast of Jordan.

Exodus 17:16 - For he said, Because the LORD hath sworn [that] the LORD [will have] war with Amalek from generation to generation.

The Amalekites in the Smith's Bible Dictionary

Amalekites
        A nomadic tribe of uncertain origin, which occupied the peninsula of Sinai and the wilderness intervening between the southern hill-ranges of Palestine and the border of Egypt. Nu 13:29; 1Sa 15:7; 27:8 Their wealth consisted in flocks and herds. Mention is made of a "town" 1Sa 15:5 but their towns could have been little more than stations or nomadic enclosures. The Amalekites first came in contact with the Israelites at Rephidim, but were signally defeated. Ex 17:8-16 In union with the Canaanites they again attacked the Israelites on the borders of Palestine, and defeated them near Hormah. Nu 14:45 Saul undertook an expedition against them. 1Sa 14:48 Their power was thenceforth broken, and they degenerated into a horde of banditti. Their destruction was completed by David. 1Sa 30:1-17 
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The Amalekites in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

AMALEK; AMALEKITE
am'-a-lek, a-mal'-e-kit, am'-a-lek-it (`amaleq, `amaleqi): A tribe dwelling originally in the region south of Judah, the wilderness of et-Tih where the Israelites came into conflict with them. They were nomads as a people dwelling in that tract would naturally be. When they joined the Midianites to invade Israel they came "with their cattle and their tents" (Jdg 6:3-5). They are not to be identified with the descendants of Esau (Gen 36:12,16) because they are mentioned earlier, in the account of the invasion of Chedorlaomer (Gen 14:7) and in Balaam's prophecy (Nu 24:20) Amalek is called "the first of the nations," which seems to refer to an early existence. We are uncertain of their origin, for they do not appear in the list of nations found in Gen 10. They do not seem to have had any relationship with the tribes of Israel, save as, we may surmise, some of the descendants of Esau were incorporated into the tribe. It is probable that they were of Semitic stock though we have no proof of it.
The first contact with Israel was at Rephidim, in the wilderness of Sinai, where they made an unprovoked attack and were defeated after a desperate conflict (Ex 17:8-13; Dt 25:17,18). On account of this they were placed under the ban and Israel was commanded to exterminate them (Dt 25:19; 1 Sam 15:2,3). The next encounter of the two peoples was when the Israelites attempted to enter Canaan from the west of the Dead Sea. The spies had reported that the Amalekites were to be found in the south, in connection with the Hittites, Jebusites and Amorites (Nu 13:29). The Israelites at first refused to advance, but later determined to do so contrary to the will of God and the command of Moses. They were met by Amalek and the Canaanites and completely defeated (Nu 14:39-45). Amalek is next found among the allies of Moab in their attack upon Israel in the days of Eglon (Jdg 3:13). They were also associated with the Midianites in their raids upon Israel (Jdg 6:3), and they seemed to have gained a foothold in Ephraim, or at least a branch of them, in the hill country (Jdg 5:14; 12:15), but it is evident that the great body of them still remained in their old habitat, for when Saul made war upon them he drove them toward Shur in the wilderness toward Egypt (1 Sam 15:1-9). David also found them in the same region (1 Sam 27:8; 30:1). After this they seem to have declined, and we find, in the days of Hezekiah, only a remnant of them who were smitten by the Simeonites at Mount Seir (1 Ch 4:41-43). They are once mentioned in Psalms in connection with other inveterate enemies of Israel (Ps 83:7). The hatred Inspired by the Amalekites is reflected in the passages already mentioned which required their utter destruction. Their attack upon them when they were just escaped from Egypt and while they were struggling through the wilderness made a deep impression upon the Israelites which they never forgot, and the wrath of David upon the messenger who brought him news of the death of Saul and Jonathan, declaring himself to be the slayer of Saul, was no doubt accentuated by his being an Amalekite (2 Sam 1:1-16). 
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The Bible and Maps

The Bible Mentions "Amalek" in many places:

Deuteronomy 25:19 - Therefore it shall be, when the LORD thy God hath given thee rest from all thine enemies round about, in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee [for] an inheritance to possess it, [that] thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget [it].

Exodus 17:16 - For he said, Because the LORD hath sworn [that] the LORD [will have] war with Amalek from generation to generation.

Exodus 17:11 - And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed: and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed.

Genesis 36:12 - And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz Esau's son; and she bare to Eliphaz Amalek: these [were] the sons of Adah Esau's wife.

Genesis 36:16 - Duke Korah, duke Gatam, [and] duke Amalek: these [are] the dukes [that came] of Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these [were] the sons of Adah.

1 Samuel 15:20 - And Saul said unto Samuel, Yea, I have obeyed the voice of the LORD, and have gone the way which the LORD sent me, and have brought Agag the king of Amalek, and have utterly destroyed the Amalekites.

1 Samuel 28:18 - Because thou obeyedst not the voice of the LORD, nor executedst his fierce wrath upon Amalek, therefore hath the LORD done this thing unto thee this day.

Exodus 17:10 - So Joshua did as Moses had said to him, and fought with Amalek: and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill.

1 Chronicles 18:11 - Them also king David dedicated unto the LORD, with the silver and the gold that he brought from all [these] nations; from Edom, and from Moab, and from the children of Ammon, and from the Philistines, and from Amalek.

Exodus 17:14 - And the LORD said unto Moses, Write this [for] a memorial in a book, and rehearse [it] in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.

Judges 5:14 - Out of Ephraim [was there] a root of them against Amalek; after thee, Benjamin, among thy people; out of Machir came down governors, and out of Zebulun they that handle the pen of the writer.

1 Samuel 15:3 - Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass.

2 Samuel 8:12 - Of Syria, and of Moab, and of the children of Ammon, and of the Philistines, and of Amalek, and of the spoil of Hadadezer, son of Rehob, king of Zobah.

Exodus 17:9 - And Moses said unto Joshua, Choose us out men, and go out, fight with Amalek: to morrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of God in mine hand.

Judges 3:13 - And he gathered unto him the children of Ammon and Amalek, and went and smote Israel, and possessed the city of palm trees.

1 Samuel 15:2 - Thus saith the LORD of hosts, I remember [that] which Amalek did to Israel, how he laid [wait] for him in the way, when he came up from Egypt.

1 Chronicles 1:36 - The sons of Eliphaz; Teman, and Omar, Zephi, and Gatam, Kenaz, and Timna, and Amalek.

Exodus 17:13 - And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword.

1 Samuel 15:5 - And Saul came to a city of Amalek, and laid wait in the valley.

Psalms 83:7 - Gebal, and Ammon, and Amalek; the Philistines with the inhabitants of Tyre;

Exodus 17:8 - Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim.

Deuteronomy 25:17 - Remember what Amalek did unto thee by the way, when ye were come forth out of Egypt;

Numbers 24:20 - And when he looked on Amalek, he took up his parable, and said, Amalek [was] the first of the nations; but his latter end [shall be] that he perish for ever.

Numbers 13:29 - The Amalekites dwell in the land of the south: and the Hittites, and the Jebusites, and the Amorites, dwell in the mountains: and the Canaanites dwell by the sea, and by the coast of Jordan.

1 Samuel 30:1 - And it came to pass, when David and his men were come to Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites had invaded the south, and Ziklag, and smitten Ziklag, and burned it with fire;

1 Samuel 15:32 - Then said Samuel, Bring ye hither to me Agag the king of the Amalekites. And Agag came unto him delicately. And Agag said, Surely the bitterness of death is past.

1 Samuel 15:20 - And Saul said unto Samuel, Yea, I have obeyed the voice of the LORD, and have gone the way which the LORD sent me, and have brought Agag the king of Amalek, and have utterly destroyed the Amalekites.

1 Samuel 27:8 - And David and his men went up, and invaded the Geshurites, and the Gezrites, and the Amalekites: for those [nations were] of old the inhabitants of the land, as thou goest to Shur, even unto the land of Egypt.

Judges 7:12 - And the Midianites and the Amalekites and all the children of the east lay along in the valley like grasshoppers for multitude; and their camels [were] without number, as the sand by the sea side for multitude.

Numbers 14:43 - For the Amalekites and the Canaanites [are] there before you, and ye shall fall by the sword: because ye are turned away from the LORD, therefore the LORD will not be with you.

1 Samuel 30:18 - And David recovered all that the Amalekites had carried away: and David rescued his two wives.

2 Samuel 1:1 - Now it came to pass after the death of Saul, when David was returned from the slaughter of the Amalekites, and David had abode two days in Ziklag;

1 Samuel 15:15 - And Saul said, They have brought them from the Amalekites: for the people spared the best of the sheep and of the oxen, to sacrifice unto the LORD thy God; and the rest we have utterly destroyed.

Judges 12:15 - And Abdon the son of Hillel the Pirathonite died, and was buried in Pirathon in the land of Ephraim, in the mount of the Amalekites.

Genesis 14:7 - And they returned, and came to Enmishpat, which [is] Kadesh, and smote all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites, that dwelt in Hazezontamar.
 

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